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"Unique and important . . . Patterns of Culture is a signpost on the road to a freer and more tolerant life." -- New York TimesA remarkable introduction to cultural studies, Patterns of Culture is an eloquent declaration of the role of culture in shaping human life. In this fascinating work, the renowned anthropologist Ruth Benedict compares three societies -- the Zuni of"Unique and important . . . Patterns of Culture is a signpost on the road to a freer and more tolerant life." -- New York TimesA remarkable introduction to cultural studies, Patterns of Culture is an eloquent declaration of the role of culture in shaping human life. In this fascinating work, the renowned anthropologist Ruth Benedict compares three societies -- the Zuni of the southwestern United States, the Kwakiutl of western Canada, and the Dobuans of Melanesia -- and demonstrates the diversity of behaviors in them. Benedict's groundbreaking study shows that a unique configuration of traits defines each human culture and she examines the relationship between culture and the individual. Featuring prefatory remarks by Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, and Louise Lamphere, this provocative work ultimately explores what it means to be human."That today the modern world is on such easy terms with the concept of culture . . . is in very great part due to this book." -- Margaret Mead"Benedict's Patterns of Culture is a foundational text in teaching us the value of diversity. Her hope for the future still has resonance in the twenty-first century: that recognition of cultural relativity will create an appreciation for 'the coexisting and equally valid patterns of life which mankind has created for itself from the raw materials of existence.'" -- from the new foreword by Louise Lamphere, past president of the American Anthrolopological AssociationRuth Benedict (1887-1948) was one of the most eminent anthropologists of the twentieth century. Her profoundly influential books Patterns of Culture and The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture were bestsellers when they were first published, and they have remained indispensable works for the study of culture in the many decades since....

Title : Patterns of Culture
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ISBN : 9780618619559
Format Type : Paperback
Number of Pages : 320 Pages
Status : Available For Download
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Patterns of Culture Reviews

  • Ann
    2019-01-07 15:16

    Culture and Personality Paradigm:Ruth Benedict’s Patterns of Culture In her book Patterns of Culture Ruth Benedict presents ethnographic accounts of three unique cultures, the Pueblo (Zuni) Indians of the Southwest, the Dobu of eastern New Guinea and the Kwakiutl of the Pacific Northwest coast between Washington and British Columbia. Benedict employs use of these cultures to demonstrate her theory of culture as “personality-writ-large.” The book starts out with two sections, largely theoretical; Benedict then presents her idea of cultural configurations (patterns) before moving on to compare the Apollonian Zuni and Dionysian Plains Indians, the paranoid Dobu, and the megalomaniacal Kwakiutls’ perspectives on marriage, family, resources, animism, and warfare/violence. The final chapters discuss cultural relativism and also provide an analysis of the relative nature in which abnormal individuals and their actions can be viewed and the constructed nature of deviance through the imposing of strict standards as it relates to conformity.The purpose of this summary is to review the main themes of the text and to understand this work in the context to the configurationalist approach, which is an extension of the culture and personality school within the field of American anthropology that Benedict developed and made use of in this work. Patterns of Culture contains three central themes: 1) human culture can be viewed as “personality-writ-large,” 2) comparative studies of different cultures can shed light on our own social and cultural behaviors, and 3) that morality is a dependent cultural variable and cultural dissimilarities should not be judged by absolute standards.A central theme of Patterns of Culture is cultural configurations; Benedict’s hypothesis is that personality patterns can be found in culture. In introducing Benedict’s book, Boas explains configuration to be “a knowledge of the attitudes controlling individual and group behavior.” (Benedict 1934: xvii) Benedict views human culture as “personality-writ-large,” meaning that a culture can be seen as an individual personality and each person in a culture can be perceived in relation to the pattern, types, or traits which characterize their specific culture. According to Benedict, a people’s culture should be viewed as an articulating whole, made up of traits, actions and beliefs that are shared by individuals within the culture. In explaining her theoretical premises, Benedict puts forth that “a culture, like an individual, is a more or less consistent pattern of thought an action,” that choose from “the great arc of potential human purposes and motivations” and that “the only way in which we can know the significance of the selected detail of behavior is against the background of the motives and emotions and values that are institutionalized in that culture.” (Benedict 1934: 46, 237, 49) In saying this, Benedict is making clear her theory of cultural configurations (patterns), explaining that each culture has a system of ideas, standards and values that facilitate social cohesion, and that through the process of socialization selected traits are reinforced and the shared behaviors and beliefs of a culture are perpetuated.Benedict believes that personality patterns can be found in culture and that these patterns can be characterized in a meaningful way. To illustrate this point, she presents chapters on the Pueblo Indians of the Southwest, the Dobu of eastern New Guinea and the Kwakiutl of the Pacific Northwest coast. In the first ethnographic chapter, she describes the Pueblo (Zuni) to be Apollonian, valuing sobriety and inoffensiveness and being controlled and reserved in nature, seeking to follow and reinforce the bounds of their cultural norms; she contrasts the Pueblo Indians with the Plains, and other North American Indians, stating they are Dionysian and characterizing them as prone to irrational excess and continually testing the boundaries of their existence. In the next chapter she presents the Dobu, describing them as paranoid, fearful and suspicious. Finally, she discusses the Kwakiutl, stating they are megalomaniacal in nature, discussing their competitive potlatch to demonstrate their need to dominate others. It is important to take note that Benedict’s accounts of the Zuni came from her own research, while ethnographic material about the Dobu came from Margaret Mead and Reo Fortunes work in New Guinea, and the chapter on the Kwakiutl was largely formed from Boas’ work in British Columbia. In discussing each of these cultures, she presents their perspectives on marriage, family, resources, animism, and warfare/violence. Benedict’s hypothesis is that all cultures can be described as Apollonian, Dionysian, paranoid and or megalomaniacal and that some cultures are combinations of these traits; however, in assigning these terms she is not attempting to create typologies, as “each one is an empirical characterization, and probably not duplicated in its entirety anywhere else in the world.” (Benedict 1934:238) The second theme in Patterns of Culture is that comparative studies of different cultures are beneficial and can shed light on our own social and cultural behaviors. Benedict puts forth that use of the comparative method in looking at cultures in relation or contrast to each other will act to emphasize differences between cultures and will simultaneously provide “the understanding we need of our own cultural processes.” (Benedict 1934: 56) To this end, in the concluding chapters of the book Benedict touches upon cultural deviance among the Zuni, Dobu and Kwakiutl and provides an analysis of the relative nature in which “abnormal” individuals and their actions can be viewed and the constructed nature of deviance through the imposing of strict standards as it relates to conformity. Margaret Mead states that the questions Benedict raises related to the connection between abnormality and cultures brings to light the need to question the limited definitions of normal behavior, allowing us to reconsider what is normal and abnormal, and that “the widening of cultural definitions might enrich our culture and lighten the load of rejection under which the cultural deviant now labors.” (Benedict 1934: ix) Benedict does make a point to state that use of the comparative method has no room for moralizing judgments and that attempts to do so go against the principles of cultural relativism. To do this would be a futile endeavor as each culture has “certain goals toward which their behavior is directed and which their institutions further,” and that these goals “are incommensurable.” (Benedict 1934: 223) The third theme in Patterns of Culture addresses the concept of cultural relativism. Benedict clearly communicates throughout the book that morality is a dependent cultural variable and that cultural dissimilarities should not be judged by absolute standards. During her time as a student at Columbia, Boas mentored Benedict and trained her in the, at the time, disputed notion of cultural relativism that greatly shaped his anthropological work. Patterns of Culture highlights the issues in understanding cultures on their own terms, often bringing up Western ethnocentric views; this is key as when the book was first published the target group was a Western audience. Benedict states that a culture’s beliefs must been looked at within the context of their own culture, not judged in comparison to the cultural ideals of the individuals studying them. Benedict takes a highly humanistic approach and clearly leans towards culture in the culture vs. nature debate. Her book has gone a long ways in communicating the importance of being aware of our own ethnocentric tendencies and continues to teach the value of human diversity. Patterns of Culture in context to the Culture and Personality ParadigmBenedict received her anthropological training at Columbia University under the instruction of Franz Boas. The anthropology program at Columbia was somewhat new, and its’ foundation was based in the four-field approach, melding physical and cultural anthropology with archaeology and linguistics as a way to study human biological evolution, cultural differences, the uniqueness of each cultural history and the interconnectedness of language and culture. Having studied anthropology during a time when the field was so greatly changing certainly impacted her use of theory and methodology, but also explains why she fell sort of operationalizing the ethnographic data she collected in a more quantitative way.Believing that culture and personality are so interconnected that they could not be examined independently, Benedict developed and employed use of the configuration approach, which is a specific perspective within the culture and personality school of American anthropology (later known as psychological anthropology) that melds cultural relativism with psychological theory. The roots of the culture and personality school of American anthropology can be traced back to Franz Boas; however, Benedict, Margaret Mead and Edward Sapir largely developed this theoretical approach, focusing on socialization, and developing a course of action for comparing cultures in terms of the benefits for individuals. Proponents of this paradigm consider how cultures understand their own human identify and focus on understanding the relationship between the cultural environment and individual personality. The main premise of the culture and personality paradigm is that socialization constructs personality patterns by shaping an individuals behaviors, thoughts, and norms, and that the behaviors adults display are culturally patterned, allowing them to fit in and function productively within their surroundings.In Patterns of Culture Benedict clearly uses a theoretical approach to cultural comparisons and culture theories. As Boas points out in his introduction, Benedict’s approach is different and distinct from the functional approach, in that it is more focused on determining the “fundamental attitudes than with the functional relations of every cultural item.” (Benedict 1934: xvii) Although it seems rather questionable that the groups she highlighted in this work so succinctly fell into the categories of Apollonian, Dionysian and paranoid, the examples she provides for each of the cultures clearly demonstrated her theory of culture as “personality-writ-large.” Eighty years later, this view seems a bit simplistic and dated; however, her discussions of ethnocentric tendencies, cultural relativism, and historical particularism are timeless. Her analysis at times seems to have been highly generalized and far too humanistic, specifically in that she did not make use of enough quantitative data. The Zuni, particularly, seemed to be portrayed as devoid of emotion bringing up the question as to if she truly found specific patterns or merely subsets within the culture as a whole. It seemed a bit incongruous to be describing cultures as specific categories while at the same time using a cultural relativistic framework, but I think Benedict’s theory of cultures espousing certain patterns is certainly valid, although simplistic.The specific methodology employed in this work does not translate to my thesis topic; however, the general concepts of cultural relativism and historical particularism will certainly play a role in shaping all of our theses.

  • Will Kaufman
    2019-01-01 15:25

    Probably the most interesting and compelling introduction to anthropology you could ever hope for. Ruth Benedict lays out some basic principles - that anyone who's ever wondered about the society they live in should read - backed up with explorations of three incredibly fascinating cultures. This is a very profluent book, so I feel I can safely recommend it to people who have never read non-fiction before. Patterns of Culture is a book that will change the way you see the world.

  • David Haws
    2018-12-19 17:20

    Successful societies reproduce excessively as a hedge against the death (accidental or purposeful) of those intended to fill necessary positions in the coming generation. An upper-class redundant (the unneeded lesser son of a noble family) can move down a notch (fill some ranked position in the church, government, or military). A merchant’s second son might start a new business, become a craft apprentice, or descend to the less-protected ranks of labor (depending on the good graces of the inheriting son). But at the bottom of the underclass, there is really nowhere to go. Society keeps an underclass to fill breeches in the higher ranks caused by war, pestilence, or natural disaster; but it also tries to keep the underclass at some manageable level through those same disasters (in addition to famine). As we move from a dispersed (hunter-gathering) to more condensed (agriculture-industry-information) societies, the underclass is joined by primitives, farmers, and industrial workers who are no longer required. Paying the landlords for cash-crops produces famine. Crowding primitives and agrarians into “reservations,” ghettos, and airless factories produces pestilence. War exhausts not only your own underclass, but might free lebensraum for your survivors (so you don’t have to invite them home, where they might menace your daughters). In the process, some of the underclass can be elevated (armies, police, prisons) to control the rest of the underclass.Looking at other societies from the outside helps us to recognize the reprehensible nature of our own society. My anthropology instructor in college used to spend the lecture hour rehearsing some arcane and gruesome ritual (e.g., the Australian aborigine’s practice of sub-incision) and would always end his lecture with the same phrase: “the whole world ain’t like Sebastopol” (the local Podunk). I think Benedict’s point is that we are Sebastopol, we just can’t see it.Benedict writes beautifully, and she always seems to have interesting material.

  • Anna Harrison
    2018-12-31 14:29

    For any lovers of anthropology, this is one of the classic texts which fundamentally shaped the study of culture. Though of course we have moved beyond some of the basic theoretical issues inherent in the 'culture concept' (i.e. Critics like Abu-Lughod move towards a definition of culture as unbounded and dynamic, and of course the shift away from 'traditional/modern' cultures dichotomy) so much of this text is still applicable in a globalising world. I was surprised actually by how relevant the first few chapters were.It is a beautiful read, and encompasses the rich, descriptive style of classic ethnography. I highly, highly recommend this book - I was not expecting to enjoy it at first, but it remains to be one of the great classics, and is a guaranteed enjoyable read for any lover of culture studies.

  • Fernando Kaiowá
    2019-01-19 09:32

    In this timeless book, Ruth Benedict brilliantly exposes her theory of cultural relativity, stating that no cultural trait in any culture is more or less valid than any other one from the great variety of possible human behaviors. Her vision couldn't be more actual, since it argues that each culture has a history and temperament of its own, rendering it unique, but not superior nor inferior to other cultures. Her description of three contrasting cultures illustrates very clearly that there are no fixed rules on which cultural traits dominate in different societies, and the impossibility of knowing whether these are culturally or biologically determined. Cultures are also shown to privilege certain behaviors at the expense of what are considered abnormal behaviors of the individuals that don't fit this society. Different societies found contrasting ways to deal with such conflict between the individual and their culture, some elevating him to a higher degree of importance (such as shamans in many societies) and others downgrading them. It is argued that it is the natural tendency of the individual which will determine whether they will fit the dominant culture or be considered as an abnormal type. Extreme behaviors can also be privileged, such as someone with greedy ambitions in a society which privileges competition and accumulation of property, such as ours. In this case, extremely greedy individuals find legitimacy to go to extremes that others won't, and despite causing suffering to others, are simply seen as successful individuals. This social critique is of extreme importance, because since Ruth's age, capitalism and neoliberalism only intensified this situation, legitimizing behaviors that would be categorized as psychopathic in other cultures, and probably will be in some time, in our own western culture.

  • Kmorgenstern
    2019-01-14 17:36

    This book was a very interesting read. It helped me put into perspective cultural values that we take for granted as 'universal'. There are no universal values or ethics - every culture shapes reality according to their own value priorities. Thus it put a large question mark on my mind as to how to solve certain problems that we face as a species - how are we ever going to find a common ground from which to tackle these? I found the perspective of analysis interesting - Apollonian versus Dionysian cultures, but I would add that the basic philosophy and modus operandi of a culture can change over time. If we regard western European culture it becomes obvious that our own cosmological outlook has changed a great deal, from Dionysian in Roman and even pre-Roman times to the rather more Apollonian that we have today. Anyhow, I think it is an important and stimulating read that opens the mind to the kaleidoscopic world of possibilities that the human spirit has evolved to answer the fundamental questions of life.

  • Sunny
    2019-01-17 15:39

    I liked this book overall. It talks about different cultures in three different parts of the world – the pueblos of new Mexico, the Dobu of Papua New Guinea and the Kwakuitl of Northwest America. the book contrasts some of the norms we take for granted around what constitutes a moral action. Ruth looks at the science of custom, the diversity of cultures, its integration, the nature of society and the individual and patterns of society. To be honest there were some very interesting bits in the middle when she talks about the three cultures but i found some of those bits a little boring. The last 2 chapters is where she sums it all up and it all comes to life. Definitely read those last 2 chapters. Overall a very good book if a tad slow in places.

  • Bianca
    2018-12-26 14:28

    I think Benedict makes some interesting points. She has written a book that covers almost exactly the reasons I want to study anthropology. She wants people to understand the idea of cultural relativity, which I think is an important idea. We have to remember that every culture is different and people fit into their cultures and worlds differently. Just because I am a white woman in the US doesn't mean I understand the experience of every white woman in the US. We are all different and we fit into this world as an outsider to one culture but as a normal citizen of another culture. Culture is a ever changing thing that I think is so interesting and will truly never be fully understood.

  • Cleiton
    2019-01-16 10:34

    Eu gostei muito desse livro. A edição em pt-br só foi lançada ano passado, e um livro tão antigo! É importante porque traça uma discussão na relação entre indivíduo e sociedade, que para a autora não há conflito, ambos se relacionam muito bem e são interdependentes. Ela pontua três sociedades indígenas que ficam na Columbia Britânica nos EUA, discorrendo sobre eventos e costumes sociais em que mostra os indivíduos agindo e sendo formados pela cultura.

  • Chrisl
    2018-12-20 16:26

    First read in 1960s for an anthropology class, and subsequently reread, being one of the few social science books that left a lasting impression.For a novel look at Salmon Culture social life, I recommend Houston's Eagle Song.Eagle Song: An Indian Saga Based on True Events

  • Valerie
    2019-01-06 15:20

    I remember this for the basic dichotomy of 'Apollonian' and 'Dionysian' cultures. I suspect Benedict chose the case studies she did because she felt they best represented polar forms of this dichotomy. Real societies, of course, aren't neatly cut in two--so she tended to exaggerate a bit betimes, probably.

  • Laura
    2019-01-13 16:15

    I think all my texts from degree #1 were intriguing. But this is a straight text book and I suppose even I don't often pleasure read anthropology essays. However, I think this is the one that has the references to some of my favorite "Did you know somewhere in the world there are people who..." references from the BA days.

  • Annah
    2019-01-06 09:32

    Ruth Benedict's classic work on culture through individuals and the arc of human potentialities. "Social thinking at the present time [1934] has no more important task before it than that of taking adequate account of cultural relativity," she writes. The first chapters, re-reads from years ago, were a welcome reminder; the last one was a welcome surprise, as it touches on the arbitrariness of cultural "deviance" and resultant suffering. Skimmed the middle.

  • Joseph Carrabis
    2018-12-21 10:26

    A friend gave me Patterns of Culture because "you study anthropology, don't you?" I'm glad he didn't want it back. Patterns of Culture is an amazing read for anyone interested in ethnography, cultural anthropology/psychology/morality, language and a few other fields. Find a copy and give yourself a joyful afternoon's adventure.

  • Sophie
    2019-01-12 15:37

    Read for school. Had some good discussions about how in a modern perspective Benedict's narrative can be problematic, but this was a very enjoyable read. I'll be looking for her that book.

  • Erik
    2019-01-16 15:40

    I found this book to be incredibly insightful. Through my time I haven't been able to help questioning the foundations that society and culture is built upon, and I believe this is because simply I just don't agree with many of the firm views of life, but also because the ideas of truth, fact, and certainty seem to be more fluid, in my experience, than the rock hard foundations they have been described as. It seems to me that many, if not every single aspect of existence, is a choice, and if free will doesn't exist than suffice to say that life is inevitably situational. Evolution having nothing to do with terms such as "best," in the progressive sense, but rather niche suitability. If the conditions are right, then something will grow. The multiple layers we have categorically for life have it go back and fourth between boundless and binding. The boundless layers allowing us to bend the envelope of the binding ones. This world is not static, unchanging, dogmatic, orthodox, firm, solid, or any such idea. As Benedict shows through this work, our very culture does not even escape this narrative. This subjective/objective reality.

  • Walter
    2018-12-23 10:34

    Patterns of Culture is a seminal work in the field of Anthropology, written in 1936 by Ruth Benedict, the Columbia University Professor of Anthropology, student of Franz Boas and mentor of the famous anthropologist Margaret Mead. In fact, Margaret Mead wrote the preface to Patterns of Culture.This book is a study of three diverse cultures - the Zuni indians of the American Southwest, another tribe of the Pacific Northwest and a people of the Pacific Islands of Micronesia. In this work, Benedict describes these peoples using classifications that she borrowed from the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzche. There are "Apollonian" cultures, formal, staid and unexciting, and then there are the "Dionysian" cultures, wild, violent and uninhibited. Of the three cultures examined by Benedict, only the Zuni were Apollonian. Part of Benedict's thesis seems to be that wild and uninhibited behaviors among the Dionysian cultures are the reason why these societies never progress beyond the point of being savages. It is interesting to note that, prior to the 1960s, social science was largely in the service of Darwinian and Nietzchian theories of Survival of the Fittest and the "Ubermensch", the idea that some men are better than others. Benedict does not espouse these views in her book, but between the lines we can see their implicit acceptance. While Benedict does state that cultures should be assessed on their own merits and not compared to other cultures or valued in this way, she does judge the various cultures in her analysis of their situations. Perhaps we can say that it is impossible as human beings to not judge each other.I would be interested to know if anthropology students still read this work and other early works in their field. My suspicion is that they do not, and that they know of the analysis presented here through a paragraph or two that are devoted to Benedict in their Anthropology text. It would be a shame if this were the case. One of our vices in the 21st century is an ignorance of the history and development of science. Even works published as recently as the 1930s are known today only through commentary.

  • Michele
    2018-12-19 15:27

    In her book Patterns of Culture, Ruth Benedict examines the concept of cultural relativity by examining three indigenous groups in different areas around the world. These groups are: the Zuni, the Dobu and the Kwakiutl of the pacific northwest of North America. Written in 1934, the book reveals is age by the seemly derogatory terms by today’s standards. However, within the confines of the book, it appears as though Benedict is looking at the margins of the culture area for patterns which are beyond the culture area norms. It’s clear that Benedict is using the concepts of psychology and sociology to examine how and why cultures are formed and how in this particular time, one culture deviates from those surrounding it. The reader often gets the impression that Benedict is criticizing her own culture for viewing others in a negative light. She is quick to point out that European and even American ideals is not the overarching standard for all cultures.

  • Roberta McDonnell
    2019-01-06 12:19

    In Patterns of Culture, renowned anthropologist Ruth Benedict reveals many wonderful ideas and examples of how humans as individuals and groups carve out the meanings and practices of their lives. As well as demonstrating a robust method for understanding cultural phenomena within historical and social contexts, Benedict shows how the self and the social world are like two sides of the one coin, each shaping the other in an ongoing dynamic (as I argued in my thesis (2006), quoting Benedict liberally!). It is an enjoyable book in spite of being an academic classic and I think this is because the theoretical and empirical material are described in an interesting and empathic way. Recommended to anyone interested in culture and the self.

  • monika
    2019-01-13 09:23

    Read for a Cultural Theory class, but as engrossing as if I had picked it up on my own. Benedict, an obvious student of Franz Boas, argues that all cultures could be traced back to a basic core principal, she calls them "intellectual mainsprings," which one can find embodied in a culture's many manifestations, like marriage customs, religion, trading partners-- a pattern if you will. She includes three short ethnographies which highlight some of her points, so there is a bit more application than a lot of cultural theory writing.

  • Isabel
    2018-12-20 16:18

    Me pareció un libro interesante para entender la evolución de los culturalistas norteamericanos, hacía un concepto de cultura más integral. Así como complementar mi conocimiento sobre el enfoque "socio-psicológico" de la antropología. Sin embargo, se me hizo muy evidente las problemáticas que trae el relativismo cultural de esta corriente. Asimismo, se logra ver la génesis del concepto de aculturación. Sin duda recomendable para entender esta corriente antropológica.

  • Alissa
    2018-12-28 17:34

    I've read bits and pieces of this before, but I finally had to read the entire thing for school. Benedict's writing style is very fluid and digestible and I found the book to be an easy read. Cultural relativism was crucial to the formation of anthropology as we know it and, therefore, this is an important piece for students to read; I find, however, that I'm way more interested in the much juicer theory that pops up much later down the road.

  • Galen
    2018-12-26 10:32

    Another good read for anthropology, I really liked learning all kindsa wacky stuff different tribes do, bizarre nature of humans never ceases to amaze because normality is culturally defined and equally bizarre in every culture.

  • Leslie
    2019-01-17 10:21

    After schlepping it around for 40 years, I finally read it.Wish I'd done it earlier, but oh what a treat!The relativity of cultures had entered our legal system in LA: Parents from SE Asia "cup" their children in disease situations and are put in jail for it. Dear, dear.

  • Dragos
    2019-01-08 14:23

    A timeless, well written classic and Benedict's quintessential opus Patterns of Culture is quite dated nowadays but still a great insight into the minds of one of the great anthropologists of the 20th century and her theory of cultures.

  • Eli Jacobs
    2018-12-31 14:42

    this book does ethnography of 3 distinct groups of people, but it is very superficial and ethnographic data seems distorted by benedict's attempts to make each culture fit the pattern she picks for them. it is valuable as a historical account of american cultural relativism and benedict's method.

  • Risa
    2019-01-09 17:35

    Patterns of Culture by Ruth Benedict (1989)

  • !Tæmbuŝu
    2019-01-15 16:35


  • Yokonita
    2019-01-16 09:42

    work for Classical authosr of antropology.

  • Noelle
    2018-12-22 09:27

    Interesting view on what culture really is and means.