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The Third Wave by Alvin Toffler...

Title : The Third Wave
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ISBN : 9780688035976
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Number of Pages : 544 Pages
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The Third Wave Reviews

  • Ahmad Sharabiani
    2019-01-19 16:44

    The Third Wave, Alvin TofflerThe Third Wave is a book published in 1980 by Alvin Toffler. It is the sequel to Future Shock, published in 1970, and the second in what was originally likely meant to be a trilogy that was continued with Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century in 1990. A new addition, Revolutionary Wealth, was published, however, in 2006 and may be considered as a major expansion of The Third Wave. Toffler's book describes the transition in developed countries from Industrial Age society, which he calls the "Second Wave", to Information Age "Third Wave" society. The First Wave is the settled agricultural society which prevailed in much of the world after the Neolithic Revolution, which replaced hunter-gatherer cultures. The Second Wave is Industrial Age society. The Second Wave began in Western Europe with the Industrial Revolution, and subsequently spread across the world. Key aspects of Second Wave society are the nuclear family, a factory-type education system and the corporation. The Third Wave is the post-industrial society. Toffler says that since the late 1950s most countries have been transitioning from a Second Wave society into a Third Wave society. He coined many words to describe it and mentions names invented by others, such as the Information Age.تاریخ نخستین خوانش: ماه مارس سال 1984 میلادیعنوان: موج سوم؛ نویسنده: آلوین تافلر، مترجم: شهیندخت خوارزمی؛ تهران، نشرنو، 1362؛ در پانزده و 674 ص؛ کتابنامه از ص 613 تا 643؛ چاپ پنچم 1370؛ واژه نامه دارد؛ چاپ دیگر: نشر نو، چاپ بیست و یکم 1393؛ شابک: 9789647443494؛ موضوع: تمدن جدید، تحولات اجتماعی 1945 تا 1950 قرن 20 مموج سوم کتابی مشهور از الوین تافلر است که بعد از کتاب شوک آینده ایشان نوشته شده و در سال 1970 منتشر شده است. کتاب تافلر مراحل گذر کردن کشورهای توسعه‌ یافته از انقلاب صنعتی به عصر اطلاعات را توصیف می‌کنند. او در کتابهایش از انقلاب صنعتی به عنوان موج دوم و از عصر اطلاعات به عنوان موج سوم یاد کرده است. ا. شربیانی

  • Nitin
    2019-01-05 15:36

    The first wave (Agrarian Society) lasted for thousands of years; the second wave (Industrial society) lasted for close to 300 years and now the third wave("information society")- started in 1960s in U.S.- has more or less spread across the whole globe. Even though the book is written in 1980s, most part of it is still valid today. What i really liked about it is how the author tries to interconnect seemingly unrelated events in different fields like tech, sociology, politics, environment & economics with linkages of sound & convincing arguments.One may find initial few parts (of first & second wave societies) a little bit boring but as one gets to the third wave part, he/she will start relating it to the events occurred or occurring in his/her life time.I suggest, read this book not mere for its content but also for the style & structure.The book describes the path along which small changes occurring in diverse fields-each inspired by its own characteristic need- leads to the rise of civilization which itself shapes the future of many human generations.

  • ArEzO.... Es
    2018-12-28 19:22

    موج سوم نوشته الوين تافلر هميشه داراي بالاترين چاپ بوده استبين كتابهاي مديريت صنعتي بهترين رتبه كتاب را داراستنويسنده اش با شوك آينده شهرت يافت و موج سوم هم ثابت كرد كه او مديري بي همتاست و مي تواند باشدموج سوم بر اين مفهوم بنا شده است كه تاريخ بشر دو انقلاب را پشت سر گذاشته است انقلاب كشاورزي و انقلاب صنعتي و اكنون در آستانه سومين آن يعني انقلاب الكترونيك است وبحران جهان كنوني نا شي از اين انتقال پر تنش است در فصل هفدهم خانواده هاي آينده را به خوبي ترسيم كرده است و در فصل بيست و سوم بحث جالب گاندي با ماهواره را نوشته استو در انتهاسرنوشتي كه بايد ساخت

  • Nicole
    2018-12-30 18:51

    Although it was published in 1980 before home computers, e-mail, and the internet, Mr. Toffler helps make sense of the transitions we faced moving from the First Wave (Agricultural Age) to the Second Wave (Industrial Age) and now as we move into the Third Wave (Information Age). He covers topics as broad as technology, politics and gender roles and how each of these is impacted by the Third Wave. There are entire chapters that I disagree with, such as reasons given for the disintegration of the nuclear family, but it is otherwise interesting and insightful, for a book written almost 30 years ago.

  • Mohammad
    2019-01-13 18:51

    برخی افراد به قانون اساسی با احترامی تقدس آمیز نگاه می کنند و آن را حاوی ده فرمان می پندارند که آنقدر مقدس است که نباید بدان دست زد. آنان بهمردان اعصار گذشته عقلی بالاتر از عقل بشری نسبت می دهند و تصور می کنند که آنچه آنان انجام داده اند احتیاج به هیچگونه تغییر یا اصلاحی ندارد... من مطمئنا طرفدار ایجاد تغییرات مکرر و آزمایش نشده در قوانین حقوقی و قانون اساسی نیستم... اما می دانم که قوانین و نهادها باید دست در دست یکدیگر با پیشرفت ذهن بشری همگام شوند... همانطور که اکتشافات جدید انجام می شود و حقایق تازه آشکار می گردد و حالات و افکار و عقاید نیز همگام با شرایط تغییر می یابند، نهادها نیز باید پیشرفت کنند

  • TarasProkopyuk
    2019-01-02 17:25

    Несмотря на то что книга довольно старая (первое издание 1981 г.), тем не менее в ней автором замечены множество тенденций и признаков эволюционных изменений человечества.Да, многие моменты, замеченные автором сейчас не совсем корректны, некоторые не оправдали себя в предсказаниях Тоффлера, с некоторыми не согласен и готов много спорить, но что я должен признать, так это то что с подавляющим большинством аргументов я очень таки согласен.Если вам интересно знать каким день будет завтра и тенденции изменения мира не забудьте подготовиться к ним заранее прочитав данную книгу.

  • Alireza Nourian
    2019-01-14 17:29

    نویسنده سال‌ها پیش نشانه‌هایی را از آمدن آینده می‌دیده که می‌شود گفت هنوز هم دیده می‌شوند و آمدن آینده را مژده می‌دهند. کتاب قرار است روندها و تغییرات حال را پی بگیرد و آینده را پیش‌بینی کند. می‌شود گفت همین کار را انجام می‌دهد، ولی خب نه چندان متهورانه. یعنی بهتر از آنکه تصویر آینده را بکشد، حال را تحلیل می‌کند.موج سوم که در واقع مجموعه‌ای عظیم از تغییرات تدریجی است، زمانی دیده می‌شود که از بالا، بسیار بالا نگاه کنیم. یعنی شاید واحد زمان دهه باشد و تازه زمین و زمان سرعت گرفته‌اند که این‌طور شده است؛ یعنی موج دوم تغییرات را باید با واحد زمانی صده دید. این‌طور از بالا نگاه کردن به نظرم روی زندگی فردی آدم می‌تواند موثر باشد. مثلا نویسنده فکر می‌کند که ساختار سیاسی همه کشورهای جهان برای حال و آینده ناکارآمد است و فرقی نمی‌کند کدام گروه سرکار باشد. این ساختار توان گرفتن تصمیم‌های لازم را ندارد.کتاب، حرف‌های یک بزرگ‌تر است که متاسفانه زیاد تکرار می‌کند. کاش شنیدنی و صمیمی بود. کاش قصه آینده بود.

  • Ravindra Dewan
    2019-01-15 12:44

    I read this book in 1983 just by accident and it is THE greatest book that I have ever read. How close was Toffler in understanding history in such a grand sweep.

  •  Δx Δp ≥ ½ ħ
    2019-01-01 18:29

    buku yg sangat mengejutkan... dibuat pada tahun 1980-an jelas, belum datang masanya email, komputer, internet, handphone, ipod, dan ledakan penemuan lainnya yang telah mengubah wajah peradaban. tapi, bak seorang cenayang (Mama Lorentz kalah telak!!) Alvin Toffler, dg jeniusnya meramalkan bagaimana rupa peradaban manusia di masa depan (baca : coz buku ini meramalkan masa depannya puluhan tahun kedepan sesudah buku ini dibuat, artinya masa sekarang)Well, mirip-mirip bukunya Naisbitt ato Hutingtonton ato Fukuyama lah (dan sederet para cenayang 'ilmiah' lainnya), buku ini tak jauh-jauh dari pembahasan mengenai kemungkinan gejolak ekonomi, politik, sosila, budaya, agama, dan tentu saja, terorisme. tak hanya menakut-nakuti doang, buku ini juga membahas berbagai 'harapan' di masa depan..well, meski jadul bgt, tp beberapa ide, gagasan, dan isi dari buku ini masih relevan. pokoknya Naisbitt banget lah...Mambaca buku seperti ini membuat kita berpikir, Dunia macam apa yang akan kita wariskan pada anak cucu kita?

  • Soroosh Soltani
    2019-01-06 16:52

    خیلی عجیبه!اونم دوتا چیز خیلی عجیبه!اول اینکه چطور ممکنه کتاب شوک اینده ی اروین تافلر توی بوکریدز نباشه؟دوم اینکه چطور یه خبر نگار انقدر نابغست!ما همیشه فک میکنیم خبرنگارا کسایی ان که فقط حرف دیگه رو تکرار میکنن ولی واقعا اینجور نیست!اینکه تافلر انقدر خوب همه چیو پیشبینی کرده و اتفاق افتاده اینکه قبل از فروریختن شوروی یه کتاب داد و دلایل فرو ریختن شوروی رو توضیح داد در نوع خودش فوق العادست!این کتابو یه دکتر اقتصاد بهم داد و بهم گفت قبل از پزشکی باید اینارو بدونی و بفهمی دورت چه خبره!نمیشد شروعو بذارم بعد تموم کردن این کتابا

  • Jeffrey
    2019-01-12 13:34

    Again, a book written some time ago (24 years), so how does it stand up? In one section, Toffler speaks of how the customer "will become so integrated into the production process that we find it . . . difficult to tell . . . who is the producer." So many Internet niche marketers (today’s most popular and fastest growing business model) would read this and agree. It's fascinating to see such precision in understanding a device some 20 years ago that itself is only 10 years old. Today’s customer IS the product—where customers are surveyed and THEN the product is produced. Key insights:(1) Companies needing to take on full responsibility for the consequences of their actions on society and the environment;(2) Companies becoming much more important social institutions of change;(3) Information moving to the center of major decisions;(4) Government spreading its influence so that business and politics become inextricably entwined; and(5) Institutional ethics coming to more closely reflect social ethics. Once again, with the proliferation of companies taking their selling to the people through "ethically enhanced" business models, or the more modern version of multi-level marketing companies, it is fascinating to see how Toffler's predictions have come to light. Information is king today, and due to the Internet and it's almost instant and far reaching access to the public, it is difficult if not impossible to perform poorly without thousands if not millions soon being aware of a companies gross mistreatment of customers. So we can see how right on Toffler is. If you haven't read Toffler, then it's required reading for those who aren't aware of trends, and as this world moves toward light speed changes, it is essential if not vital reading for all.

  • khashayar XerXes
    2018-12-31 13:26

    1970...future shock smthing is gonna change,it will change in the fastest way it could! here he discuss the effect that the rate may cause,& leave the tehem of the "change" 4 his next book to discuss! 1980...third wave he define us the chaneg we r facing or going to face in future decades in details 1990...power shift this change "third wave" will affect the basics of distribution of the meaning of the "power" in society!

  • Sashko Valyus
    2019-01-20 19:42

    Елвін Тоффлер в 1980 році описав як буде жити інформаційне суспульство. Можна судити що він в бішості вгадав по всім статтям. І інтернет-форуми, і 3D-друк, і розвиток екологічних засобів добування енергії, і доступність інформації для усіх і всюди. В принципі те в майбутнє в якому ми живемо. Тільки це майбутнє розповсюджене нерівномірно.

  • Brad Acker
    2019-01-10 15:40

    3 salient waves of major change have greatly transformed civilization: (1) farming (began with invention of agriculture) , (2) factories (the industrial revolution), (3) our electronic information age (characterized by each individual using a personal computer to extend creativity and enhance happiness). As we move from one major wave to another, upheaval can occur.

  • Morteza Samadian
    2018-12-24 14:46

    از نگاه تافلر سه موج به ساحل زندگی بشر برخورد کرده. هر موج بر سر موج قبلی کوبیده میشه و همه پارادایم ها و اصول قبلی رو به هم میریزهکتاب ارزشمندیه و خوندنش یه باید

  • Islam
    2019-01-02 18:47

    Nice book

  • Noah
    2019-01-19 16:40

    In The Third Wave, Alvin Toffler splits human development into three stages: the agricultural period, or First Wave; the industrial period, or Second Wave; and the post-industrial period, or Third Wave. This book mainly focuses on the latter two, comparing and contrasting the two stages. Toffler believes that moving into the Third Wave is the cause of many of the political and economic problems that we see today, a growing pain of sorts. According to Toffler's picture of this newest stage of human civilization, we are going to return to many of the best parts of the First Wave, including such things as power decentralization, regionalism, and "prosumerism," or individuals that produce much of what they consume. Toffler predicted many aspects of this Third Wave future, some of which came to pass, and some of which did not. Being a futurist, Toffler unsurprisingly takes, in my opinion, a far too positive view of the future. Do not get me wrong, the future is all we have, and should be looked forward to positively, but many of his most positive predictions, for example, about power decentralization, greater equality in the distribution of wealth, and greater political power for the common people with more direct democracy, seem not only to not be coming to pass, but the opposites of his predictions appear to be far more realistic. An increased concern with environmentalism, which Toffler predicts as one of the most important aspects of the Third Wave, may be growing, but it is at a dangerously slow pace. However, despite all of these predictions that either have not or are not going to be fulfilled, many other predictions of his, particularly those regarding technology and communications, we can see have been fulfilled all around us. Overall, an interesting and thought provoking read. If possible, I would rate it 3.5 stars.

  • Laura Cáceres
    2019-01-21 17:44

    A pesar de haber pasado más de treinta años, muchos de los caminos que Toffler trazó siguen presentes ¿qué es lo que sucederá con las nuevas políticas?¿cómo será la nueva sociedad?¿esperamos nuevas formas de convivir entre los seres humanos? Una era está cayendo, pero transformándose para bien, y a pesar de que este cambio, Toffler lo vino a ubicar desde los ochenta, y se ha ido modificando conforme pasa el tiempo, muchas de sus ideas y sus propuestas todavía quedan pendientes. Pese a esto, el libro sigue actual, presente. En el caso de México, quien todavía no se sumió en una era industrial, y ha mezclado la era agrícola con la posmodernidad, vemos estos resquicios de una tercera ola floreciente. Son muchas las temáticas que aborda, pero a final de cuentas, el cambio está ahí, y no importa qué sea lo que diga el discurso oficial, nadie puede parar esto, y ´buscará entrar a la nueva sociedad global. A pesar de ser de investigación, me encantó ver que estos cambios siguen presentes, y Toffler sigue siendo un profeta, pero también una guía de nuevas proposiciones para como se ha ido conformando la humanidad a nivel global, y como esta se ha ido adaptando, sin necesidad de caer en repeticiones en serie, sino reiterando la diferencia como algo bueno y rescatable.

  • Terry Cornell
    2018-12-28 19:42

    I read Toffler's book 'Future Shock' in college as research for a marketing class project. At the time it was a fairly accurate prediction of some changes in technology and our society. I had bought 'The Third Wave' quite sometime ago, and finally got around to reading it. Published in the '80s, it might seem dated in some regards, but interesting to see what has resulted since. Basically Toffler's concept is that man moved from an agrarian society (first wave) to an industrial society (second wave) and that we are currently entering into or have entered this third type of society, writing about our struggles as we adapt. Presentation of historical information I found particularly interesting, but he seemed to struggle with exactly what this "third wave" will consist of. The last section dealing with what he thinks should be changes to our political system I found unrealistic at best. Not that changes can and should be made, but he argues for a totally new form of government.

  • Sandy
    2019-01-16 13:51

    Read many years ago. Interesting as he describes how life, culture, economy, politics--everything changes as these "waves" of progress occur. We are currently in the Third Wave--going from an industrial economy to a technical/computerized wave. He states that the change-over years are always tumultuous because you have a faction of individuals not prepared/educated to move forward. We can see where industrial cities like Detroit are having difficulties and unemployment because either these companies are computerizing their work [thus eliminating unskilled workers] or outsourcing. A great book to read now!

  • Alexander Temerev
    2019-01-20 15:23

    I do not agree with most of the explanations in this book. Mr. Toffler himself at one point confesses that he doesn't know why Third Wave phenomena are happening, and when he does offer an explanation, it is overly materialistic and occasionally just plainly Marxist.However, the book is absolutely brilliant. It is astonishing that it has been written in 1980; it could be written today and become a bestseller. Many things predicted there already happened (communication revolution, breakup of nuclear family), but some are happening right now (electronic cottage). You should read it.

  • Faisal
    2018-12-29 20:25

    I read this book as part of my course at university, suffice it to say usually anything assigned to you for reading is a bore and usually you end up disliking it.The more I read this book the more it intrigued me, I loved the clarity of vision with which trends in technology, society and human development were charted out.Unfortunately after 10years that's all I remember looks like I will have to re read this one to refresh my memory.

  • Crystal
    2019-01-01 17:45

    Another read for those who are interested in the economy. I've read it about three times now (one for every wave... hardy-har-har!) and it never ceases to amaze me how on-point Alvin is with his predictions based off of past economic trends.

  • Andre
    2019-01-07 18:41

    I've never read a book as many times as I've read this one. Alvin Toffler has done a good job in predicting the trends over the last 30 years.I'm exciting to see the breakthroughs that they predicted in the genetics industry in the coming years.

  • Lujain
    2019-01-16 19:48

    Great book for near future Especially in developing countries

  • Ernesto Tomás
    2019-01-15 14:25

    best book in The matter of future comunication

  • Alejandro De Luca
    2019-01-18 18:27

    Alvin Toffler explica en La Tercera Ola la evolución de la sociedad en función de distintas olas o corrientes que nos afectaron a lo largo de la historia.La primera ola fue la agricultura, que convirtió a pueblos nómades en sedentarios y permitió la acumulación de cosechas y bienes. La segunda ola fue la industrialización que permitió la producción en serie y reconfiguró la economía, la educación y la estructura de la familia.Toffler explica que está naciendo una nueva ola, la tercera, y que se basará en la comunicación y el conocimiento. Además, dice que esta nueva ola entrará en conflicto con la segunda, puesto que los representantes de esta ola no querrán perder su poder.Escrito en 1979 este libro predijo con mucha precisión cambios que se dieron en los siguientes 30 años. Toffler pudo analizar el pasado y el presente de su tiempo para visualizar las evoluciones educativas, sociales y políticas de todo el mundo.El libro sorprende en muchas partes. El autor en algunos casos explica tendencias que luego, con el tiempo se decantaron en costumbres y tecnologías que utilizamos a diario.La principal contra del libro es que en algunas partes el autor no acierta y es un poco aburrido y tedioso leer con detalles aquello que en realidad nunca ocurrió.Lo mejor que me ha dejado este libro es la capacidad de análisis de conflictos de la actualidad. Basta leer cualquier periódico y analizar las noticias para darse cuenta que en el fondo, no estamos más que sumidos en la lucha entre la segunda ola que pierde terreno ante la tercera ola que viene para establecerse.Es un texto largo y por momentos pesado. No es una lectura liviana. Sin embargo, considero que es uno de esos libros indispensables que hay que leer.

  • Neil
    2019-01-14 15:38

    Toffler, writing in 1980, claims that there is an underlying order to the apparent breakdown of order in all parts of modern life, and proceeds to try and describe it in historical terms. Toffler claims that there are clear points in the history of human civilisation where an entirely new type of civilisation emerged. These changes aren't sudden, but they are profound and fundamentally alter every aspect of human existence once they have been fully realised. Toffler uses the metaphor of a "wave" to suggest the way in which these changes to a new type of civilisation occur: the change builds up and travels through the civilisation, transforming social structures, understandings of reality, even our sense of ourselves, in their wake. Multiple waves can also traverse through a single society - although hasn't happened until quite recently, as Toffler identifies only three such waves.The First Wave was the agricultural revolution in pre-history. First-Wave civilisation abandoned the hunter-gatherer way of life, and settled down to farming. The Second Wave was the Industrial Revolution. The effects of this Second Wave have still not been fully felt across the globe, and won't be complete until the entire world exists within industrial reality, although Toffler says it is currently reaching the final stages of its transformative effects.This brings us to the Third Wave, which is what Toffler says we are undergoing right now. As we are right at the start of this Third Wave, we still have very little idea of what shape the new civilisation to come will take. What we do know, according to Toffler, is that life in the civilisation to come will be as different to Second-Wave "industiral civilisation" as Second-Wave "industrial civilisation" is to First-Wave "agricultural civilisation".Toffler specifies exactly the areas where the changes will occur in terms of the various "spheres" of life: the techno-sphere (applied technology), the socio-sphere (social structures), the info-sphere (circulation of information) and the power-sphere (the practice of politics). Additionally, the psycho-sphere, or our very psychology will be transformed, as will our relationship with the bio-sphere, or natural world.Much of what Toffler examines is simply the logical extension of trends prevalent at the time of his writing. Since many of those trends have continued - the "de-massification" of the media, the end of the dominance of the nuclear family form, the rise of an environmental consciousness - there isn't too much to say about them. What is concerning, however, is Toffler's implicit assumption that these changes all add up to something revolutionary.One consequence of this is that he quite explicitly advocates abandoning the existing institutions of politics, like national governments and majoritarian democracy, as ineffective relics of an established order that's on the way out. He recognises the danger in this, but believes that the very fact of the "Third Wave" makes their obsolescence inevitable; indeed, the seeming intractability of the problems of politics today are explained by the very inadequacy of the outmoded institutions through which attempts are made to address political problems.His totalistic thesis of a "Third Wave", and its implication of a hidden unity beneath the seemingly disparate issues faced in late 20th century society, is also problematic if even one of the proposed trends he outlines doesn't continue as anticipated. The "oil shocks" of the late 1970s are a major part of Toffler's understanding of what will happen in the future, while the ascendance of Reaganism and Thatcherism in the 1980s is not. While it's easy criticism to point out the later developments that occurred which were not anticipated by a past futurist, it's a necessary criticism if the changes are given as evidence of some sort of overall whole, with an underlying order.And it's this notion of an "underlying order" that I find most problematic in Toffler's thesis. He explicitly denies that it's possible to point to any one cause of the "Third Wave", going so far as to suggest that this is simply the wrong question to ask, as there are innumerable factors interacting with each other in exceedingly complex ways to bring the Third Wave about. But this simply begs the question of why we can speak of a "Third Wave" at all. All the changes in media, in family structure, in work life and in economic life: why should we assume that there's any unity to them, especially absent any rationale for believing them to be unified.Toffler suggests that the fundamental change is from a "mass" society to a "de-masified" one, with a preference and tendency for concentration and sameness in all areas of life giving way to decentralisation and diversity. Besides the fact that a new decentralised-but-still-modern society has been claimed as just around the corner since at least the 1930s (see, for instance, Lewis Mumford's Technics & Civilization, which claims that the then-new technology of electricity will promote decentralised living and provide clean energy), the very concept of a "Third-Wave" seems to be very much what Toffler would term a "Second Wave" concept: it posits a unity and sameness to social change. "Third-Wave thinking", if such a thing were to exist, would most likely reject the very concept of a "Third Wave" as too reductionist and stifling to thought.

  • Polo
    2019-01-03 18:29

    Книга Элвина Тоффлера выпущена в 80-ые, но несмотря на это Тоффлер, как блестящий историк и футуролог разложил по полочкам как развивалась и будет развиваться человеческая жизнь. Я составила табличку трех волн, чтобы наглядно увидеть, что и как менялось. Я сфотографирую и сохраню ее в облако. Я читала эту книгу полгода, и она дала мне много пищи для размышлений. Посоветовала мне ее почитать Новикова Ольга Владимировна, преподаватель модуля "Культура и человек в глобализирующемся мире".

  • Ensiyeh
    2019-01-22 20:38

    مسئولیت ایجاد تحول با ماست. باید از خود آغاز کنیم. باید یاد بگیریم که چشمانمان را به روی واقعیات اعجاب انگیز و عمیق و تازه نبندیم. این به معنای مرعوب نشدن در برابر اندیشه کش هاست که عجولانه هر فکر تازه ای را با این خیال که غیر عملی است سرکوب می کنند. و از آنچه هست بدلیل عملی بودن ( حال هر قدر بی معنی و ستمگرانه و بی فایده باشد ) دفاع می کنند. و این به معنای مبارزه برای آزادی بیان است یعنی اینکه مردم حق داشته باشند حرف خود را بزنند صرف نظر از اینکه درست یا نادرست باشد.