Read The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri David H. Higgins C.H. Sisson Online


This single volume, blank verse translation of The Divine Comedy includes an introduction, maps of Dante's Italy, Hell, Purgatory, Geocentric Universe, and political panorama of the thirteenth and early fourteenth century, diagrams and notes providing the reader with invaluable guidance. Described as the "fifth gospel" because of its evangelical purpose, this spiritual autThis single volume, blank verse translation of The Divine Comedy includes an introduction, maps of Dante's Italy, Hell, Purgatory, Geocentric Universe, and political panorama of the thirteenth and early fourteenth century, diagrams and notes providing the reader with invaluable guidance. Described as the "fifth gospel" because of its evangelical purpose, this spiritual autobiography creates a world in which reason and faith have transformed moral and social chaos into order. It is one of the most important works in the literature of Western Europe and is considered the greatest poem of the European Middle Ages.About the Series: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the broadest spectrum of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, voluminous notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more....

Title : The Divine Comedy
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ISBN : 9780199535644
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Number of Pages : 741 Pages
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The Divine Comedy Reviews

  • Manny
    2019-04-10 06:19

    "You can recognize a small truth because its opposite is a falsehood. The opposite of a great truth is another truth." - Niels BohrI was thinking about Dante the other day and wondering how one could approach him from the angle of a GoodReads review. One of the obvious problems is that he lived a long time ago, and many of the cultural referents have changed. You're constantly having to think "Well, nowadays what he's saying would correspond to THAT". It isn't so bad in Hell, when there is plenty of entertainment to be had in seeing how the different sins are punished, and indulging your schadenfreude. Then Purgatory tells a moral story that's more or less timeless if you go for that sort of thing, but once you arrive in Paradise it starts getting seriously tricky. A lot of the stuff at first sight just seems irrelevant to the 21st century world... all these explanations about the mechanics of Ptolomaic astronomy, and Dante querying the inhabitants of Heaven on obscure theological points. It's notorious that readers most often give up somewhere in the third book. I started wondering if there was any modern-day author one could identify with Dante, and if that might help us connect to his concerns. And in fact, I do have a suggestion that some people will no doubt condemn out of hand as completely heretical: Richard Dawkins. Now of course, I am aware that Dante was deeply immersed in the Christian world-view, and Dawkins is famous for being the world's most outspoken atheist. But it's not quite as crazy as it first may seem. Dante was a Christian to the core of his being, but he was furious with the way the Church was being run; he put several of its leaders, notably Pope Boniface VIII, in Hell. On the other side, I challenge anyone to read "The Ancestor's Tale" to the end, and not, at least for a moment, entertain the idea that Dawkins is in actual fact a deeply religious man. He admits as much himself: as he puts it, it's often not so much that he disagrees with conventionally religious people, more that "they are saying it wrong". Amen to that.As noted, both Dante and Dawkins are extremely unhappy with the way mainstream religion is being organized. The other characteristic that unites them for me is this passionate love for science. One has to remember that, for Dante, Ptolomaic astronomy was state of the art stuff, and the details of the angelic hierarchy were a topic of vital importance; of course he cross-examines the hosts of the blessed to find out more. These days, I imagine he would be trying to get inside information on what happened during the Big Bang before spontaneous symmetry breaking occurred, whether or not the Higgs particle really exists, and how evolution produced human intelligence. For Dante, there didn't seem to be any opposition between religious faith and science - they were part of the same thing. I do wonder what he would have thought if he had been able to learn that many leading religious figures, even in the early 21st century, reject a large part of science as being somehow unreligious. It's wrong to spend your life dispassionately trying to understand God's Universe? I can see him getting quite angry about this, and deciding to rearrange the seating a little down in Hell.I keep thinking that there's a book someone ought to write called "Five Atheists You'll Meet in Heaven". Please let me know when it comes out; I'll buy a copy at once.**************************************PS I couldn't help wondering what Paradise might have looked like if Dante had been writing today. Obviously we wouldn't have the old geocentric model of the Universe - it would be bang up to date. I think there is now far more material for an ambitious poet to work with than there was in the 14th century. For example, when we get to the Heaven of the Galaxy, I imagine him using this wonderful fact that all the heavy elements are made in supernova explosions. "We are all stardust", as some people like to put it. Then when we get to the Heaven of the Cosmos, we find that the light from the "Let there be light" moment at the beginning of Creation is still around - it's just cooled to 2.7 degrees K, and appears as the cosmic background radiation. But it's not completely uniform, as the quantum fluctuations left over from the period when the Universe was the size of an atomic nucleus are the beginnings of the galaxies created on the second day. Finally, we reach the Heaven of the Multiverse, and find that we are just one of many different universes. It was necessary to create all of them, so that random processes could make sure that a very small number would end up being able to support life. How impious to assume that God would only be able to create one Universe, and have to tweak all the constants Himself!

  • Lisa
    2019-04-25 05:58

    I once thought I'd write an essay on how long it takes a serious author (of fiction or nonfiction) before he or she inevitably quotes Dante. If I were to write a novel myself (this is a hypothetical grammatical construction!), I'd probably manage about a page before I'd exclaim that I am lost, and middle-aged, and in the middle of a dark forest. I'd try to kill off annoying acquaintances and punish them severely for their lack of admiration for me and my creativity (not to mention my sarcasm and irony!!), and of course I would meet my teenage love and be joined together forever in eternal happiness in the end (or maybe not, come to think of it, I might skip that part!), after spending a life travelling the underworld in the company of the most brilliant author I can think of. Dante fulfilled all his (and my!) dreams with the Divina Commedia, and I envy him his bravery and talent, not to mention his ability to write in that beautiful Italian. However, not all parts of the poem were equally appealing to me.I found myself loving Inferno, liking Purgatorio, and not quite identifying with Paradiso at all.I always wondered why that is, and concluded that humans are much better at depicting hell than heaven, chaos than order, dystopia than utopia. Reason being, in my (not very important) opinion: there's no storyline behind real bliss, and without stories, we are not entirely connected to humanity and its questions anymore. Paradiso is nice, but uninteresting, sort of."Lasciate ogni speranza, voi che entrate" - the ticket to hell: I doubt if there ever was a better advertisement for a rollercoaster adventure!Update in Year One Of Post-Truth Wall Building:I am still lost in that dark forest of middle age, trying to make sense of life, and Dante comes to mind more and more often, in the same way Orwell's 1984 does: it grows more realistic with every day that passes. This morning, "The Wall Of Dis" all of a sudden forced itself upon my thoughts, - the great wall separating Dante's Upper and Lower Hell. Upper Hell is for the Carnal, Gluttonous, Greedy, and Wrathful, whereas the other side of the wall contains the Heretical, Violent, Fraudulent and Treacherous. It just struck me that every wall in the world has created that kind of "mental division". The typical representatives of "upper hell", consumed by the everyday sins of wanting most of everything for themselves without being bothered by others, usually keep their "moral upper hand" by accusing the "other side of the wall" of worse crimes, such as the "wrong religion", violence, and treason.The funny (or sad) thing is that it works both ways. You can turn hell upside down and have the same results: egotistical, narcissistic angry men accuse others of treason and heresy to deflect from their own faults. No wonder Inferno is a timeless classic: after all, Dante based it on his own experience of a divisive, violent political situation.

  • Kalliope
    2019-03-30 03:21

    THE DARING, somewhat COMIC, and also DIVINE, INVENTIOIt is very difficult not to be lured by the highly intelligent craft of Durante degli Aliguieri (DA). And may be it is not a coincidence that he was the exact contemporary of Giotto, his fellow Florentine. For if Giotto planted the seed for a pictorial representation of the world in which man, at the center, and through a window, delivers to us a naturalistic depiction of divine stories, Dante also used his writing to posit himself as the Author who through his fictional persona or Alter-Ego, gives us the viewpoint to contemplate the full cosmos. His cosmos, but for us to share.Still, we modern readers, in spite of Modernist and PostModernist awareness, are still fooled by DA’s handling of illusion, and easily become pilgrims and start on a literary trip more than ready to absorb everything that DA wants us to see, and think, and believe.POLITICSSo, for example, we will learn his political views. DA was exiled in 1301 and led a peripatetic life, outside Florence, until his death in 1321. He wrote the Commedia during the exile, from 1309 and finished it in time. By masterfully welding the fact and mythologized fiction of the world of Antiquity, he cloths himself with the full robes of Auctoritas, and presents us the complex development of European politics during the thirteenth century. He summons his views repeatedly either by the succession of visits to the traitors or in fully developed historical pageants.Of course, Hell is populated by DA’s enemies, with the very pope responsible for his exile, Boniface VIII, holding stardom in Circle 8th. In this Inferno DA is the very Minos. He is the one who with his pen of many tails wraps around his enemies and throws them down the pit to the Circle that DA believes the chosen sinners deserve. Even if this spectacle horrifies his ingenuous Pilgrim.The ranking of the Inferno Circles reflect also DA’s values. Lust is the least damaging while Treason, in particular political treason and the betrayal of friends, is the most despicable. In comparison even Lucifer, a rendition that remains faithful to the medieval tradition, is not much more than a grotesque, and not particularly hateful, monster. Politics continue in Purgatory. DA’s audacity is again proved by the way he exploits to its fullest what was still a relatively new concept in Christian dogma (1274). If DA had been Minos in Inferno, he now is the discerning Cato of Purgatory. He is the one holding the Silver and Gold keys, and who claims to know the very intimate thought of those who had the luck to repent the instance just before dying. He awards then the transit ticket to Paradise. Can we be surprised if some of the awardees had some relation to those figures who had welcomed DA during his exile? DA’s authorial knowledge is supplemented by the granting his protagonist with the role of Messenger of Hope. The Pilgrim, as the only human in Purgatory, can bid for more prayers to the still living relatives when he goes back to Earth. He can effect a change in the duration that any purging sinner is to spend in the transitional stage, the only one of the three realms in which the clock is ticking.Could one expect DA to finally drop the political discourse in Heaven? No, of course not. There it even acquires greater strength since the discourse is cloaked with a divine mantle. In Paradiso it will be no other than Saint Peter himself who will denounce the path of degeneration that the Papacy had taken in recent years. And if Boniface VIII (died in 1303) had been repeatedly identified as the culprit for the evil in earth, now it is his succeeding popes, --and contemporary to the writing of Commedia--, who are selected by DA’s saintly mouthpiece. Pope Clement V was responsible for the transfer of the papacy to Avignon, and the cupidity of John XXII was for everyone to see. Indeed, a secluded Apocalyptical 666 attests that politics forms a triptych in Commedia. In agreement with the intricate framework of parallels, symmetries and balances in this work, DA devoted the three chapters 6 in each book to political diatribes.Apart from his relying on Ancient Auctoritas, DA also accorded the full weight of history to his views, and it is mostly in a couple of major pageants and in the Valley of the Kings that he exposes the political disaster that the withdrawal from the Italian peninsula by the Empire had on the various city states. It was left to the corrupt papacy and to the corrupt smaller kingdoms to spread crime along the full Europe. His solution was clear. The papacy had to govern only religious matters, and he extolled the Emperor Henry VII to hold the political reins of Europe. It is DA’s canonized Beatrice who has a reserved seat for this Emperor in God’s White Flower if he does succeed in exerting his salvific political role.DOGMABut the Commedia is not just about politics. This extremely complex work is also soaking in Christian Dogma. Of course politics and dogma were inextricably joined during the Middle Ages, and that was part of DA’s very complaint. And what is to me extraordinary about the immediate reception of Commedia, is that it was treated like Scripture. Even the early editions were illustrated like illuminated manuscripts—which in a way is most befitting if we remember that it is about the progress of a Pilgrim’s as he approaches Light and gains a 20/20 vision elevated tho the Trinitarian power.In his appeal to religious dogma DA was extraordinarily successful, even if some of his claims were shockingly daring. He modified or added realms to the Christian Cosmos, with the peculiar understanding of theLimbo to accommodate revered figures from Ancient Antiquity, or added the Pre-Purgatory for the unabsolved Rulers. He designed his own ranking of the Sins, both for Hell and Purgatory. But most importantly he proposed his understanding of Free Will and its conflicting relationship to Predetermination and God’s vision. Not by chance did he place the discussion of Free Will at the very center of the work, in Canto 16 of Purgatory.But the most dangerous proposition, for him, was his vehement defense of the limitations of the Papacy on Earth. He started writing in 1307 just a few years after the Papal Bull of Unam Sanctam the very controversial claim of papal infallibility. Not this book, but Dante’s Monarchia, in which he strongly attacked official tenet, was burned soon after Dante’s death and was included in the list of forbidden books during the 16th century.NARRATIVE SCHEMESTo us, however, it is not his proclamations on Dogma, and not even his political views (except for historians), which offer the greatest interest. What is most remarkable for literature addicts is how DA, the author, develops all these themes, and succeeds in weighing with the gravest authority his poetic treatise. And this he does through his masterful manipulation of the power of fiction and the sophisticated uses of voices.For a start, there is the protagonist: DA’s Alter Ego, and the only human in the full work. His humanity, and his being in the middle of the moral mess in which he has placed himself is the perfect mirror for the reader. But we can trust him to embody us because Virgil, the greatest Roman poet and chronologist of the foundation of Rome, will guide us. We can trust him also because Christian Divinity has selected him as the, temporary, guide. It is only when Virgil’s powers have reached his limits, two thirds into the full work, that the pilgrim’s identity is revealed to us. He is Dante himself, or Dante the Pilgrim (DP). With his revealed identity he can say goodbye to the pagan guide who cannot, alas, have a place in Heaven. Dante, however, will.The spoiler provided by our general culture has damaged the way we read the work. The astounding pretention of DA in assigning himself the powers in deciding who goes where in his system of divine retributions has been blurred to some naive readers. Some of them try to excuse Dante precisely because they have been entirely convinced by his acting puppet. The highly successful Dante the Pilgrim (DP) as a candid personality with the qualities of kindness, fear, anger and similar emotions, distracts our attention away from the real Dante, the Author.The Pilgrim is an alibi mechanism for his creator. He shows pity for the people DA condemns. He can go beyond the Terrace of Pride, in which the rather proud DA may be still spending some of his time. And he becomes the anointed messenger from the Heavens to deliver to us what DA is writing. But we would also be mistaken if we did not recognized that not always him, but many other characters voice DA’s opinion. His brilliant dramatization with innumerable personages constitutes the choir of a ventriloquist. In the sophisticated Narrative technique, the handling of time is also magisterial. Apart from the symbolic unfolding of the action during Holy Week of the year 1300, and the references to eternal cosmic time, it is the numerous voices of this clever ventriloquist who continually foretell what is to happen to the sinners. Most outstandingly the voices predict the eternal condemnation of DA’s particular enemies. Some of these were not yet dead at the time of the pilgrimage, but had already passed away when DA was writing his poem. Such an example is the premonition that the most hated pope Boniface VIII will be damned. He died three years later. But there is also the shocking case of the soul that is already in penance while his body is still living on earth. This personality died even after Dante.Finally it is DP himself, once he has entered Heaven, who engages in this foretelling, and of course, it had to be in his warning to the Popes that were about to be in power in the years after the voyage of the Commedia, reminding them to stay out of politics and to forget material wealth.The suitability of DP as our Alter-egos to reach salvation is certified by his examinations on the Theological Virtues by the the Apostles Peter, James and John. He passes them with flying colors, because DP acknowledges that his knowledge is based on the Holy Text.And it is also with Text, and DA was very well versed in exploiting its four levels of interpretation (Literal, allegorical, moral and anagogical), that is, with this new poetry that Dante Aliguieri is proposing a plan for his, and our, salvation. Because after such a heavenly Graduation who can deny the Commedia its status as Prophetic and Scriptural? May be we saw it coming, when the still anonymous Pilgrim posited himself, at the very beginning of the poem, as the 6th greatest poet after the likes of Homer, Ovid, Virgil etc. So, may be it is not by chance that his identity as Dante is revealed until Virgil is used and expensed.Several other poets also populate the triptychal poem: representatives of the two pioneering schools of Provençal and Sicilian schools, as well as by those Florentines who with or just before DA, started formulating the sweet new style (dolce still novo) and exploring the literary possibilities of the still vernacular Tuscan tongue. But if DA has been exploiting his abilities as ventriloquist, it is with his own voice as a poet that he makes a presence in Commedia. A few of his fictional characters quote some of Dante’s earlier verses.Having reached the Empirium of the poem, we can stop and think about where Dante Alighieri has taken us. Because, even if not eternal salvation, he has delivered us a most extraordinary feat of literature that we cannot but qualify as divine. Furthermore, he has done so in a newly coined language, to which he added some words of his own invention, and, most outstanding of all, he positioned the Author at the very center of that literary White Rose of fiction.And this flower continued to exude its rich scent until, in a similar process to the displacement of Giotto’s viewer, Roland Barthes, plucked it in the declaration formulated in his 1967 Essay The Death of the Author.But before that, it had a long life.

  • أحمد أبازيد Ahmad Abazed
    2019-03-29 11:09

    الكوميديا المقدسة، إحدى أعظم نتاجات الأدب الإيطالي والأوروبي عامة، والتدشين الأكمل والأكثر تعقيداً وروعةً للمزيج الذي صبغ أوروبا في كل صحواتها من سبات التاريخ، منذ قسطنطين إلى عصر النهضة وحتى الراهن، مزيج الميثولوجيا اليونانية واللاهوت المسيحي.هذه الكوميديا موسوعة معارف وملحمة شعرية ولهيب رائع لوجدان نادر.قرأتها -على مراحل متباعدة- بترجمة السوري حنا عبود، لا عن قصد مسبق وإنما حصل لي الكتاب صدفةً، وهي ترجمة رشيقة ومنسابة بحكم انحياز حنا عبود -كما أعلن في المقدمة- للسرد والتصاعد الدرامي للكوميديا على حساب الشعري والمجاز الملحمي.وهي الترجمة الثانية -تاريخاً- بعد ترجمة المصري حسن عثمان، والعراقي كاظم جهاد، وثلاثتها ترجمات ثمينة، ولكلّ ميزتها، وإن كان الاحتفاء الأكبر حظيت به الأخيرة.وبين الجحيم والمطهر والفردوس، يجمع قراء الكوميديا ونقادها على أن الجحيم أجمل أجزائها وأكثفها بالدفق الوجداني واللهيب الشعري العالي.في قاع الجحيم يُرمى أعظم العصاة الخاطئين, وأشنعهم عذاباً في مملكة الألم الأبدية, وفي هذا القعر لا ترى اللهب وإنما بحيرة الزمهرير كما يصفه دانتي, هناك يرمى الخونة, لأنهم فقدوا في حياتهم العاطفة, تخلّوا عن الدفء, فكان عذابهم لا لهيب النار وإنما برد الزمهرير الذي يشبه أرواحهم. بين تلك الأجساد التي اقتحمت الشياطين أرواحها, مغرقة في الجليد حتى الأفئدة, بينما أبقي أعلاهم مشرعاً لليباب, بوجوه محنّطة بالصقيع, جُمّد فيها مسار الدمع من المآقي, حتى يبقى الألم هناك, في الجوف الذي لا قعر له,في الداخل المعتم المكتظّ بالألم والوحشة. يتضرّع أحدهم لدانتي أن يمسح خيط الجليد ليمكنه أن يتحرر وينعتق بالبكاء, ليستردّ روحه بالدموع, ولو محض ثانية قبل أن تردّه الإرادة العليا جليداً, ولكن دانتي يتركه ويمضي. كان أقسى عذاب في مملكة الألم ألا يستطيعوا البكاء, ألا يكون لهم دموع.في ضريح رمزيّ لشاعر إيطاليا الأعظم دانتي اليغييري , في مدينته فلورنسا, التي نفتْه في الخلافات السياسية التي اصطلت بها , و رفضت حكومتها -و كنيستها- أن يعود إليها إلّا بعد أن يكتب رسالة اعتذار و يمشي حافياً ذليلاً على مطلع من الناس كعلامة على الندم, رفض دانتي ذلك طبعاً حتى مات بعيداً عنها في المنفى في طريق سفر التهمته فيه الملاريا, قبل أن يكتشف الأوروبيون عبقريته بعد وفاته بعقود من خلال الكوميديا الإلهية, الأثر الأدبي الكلاسيكي الأعظم لأوروبا ما قبل النهضة. في هذا الضريح , تجد تمثالاً لفتاة تحني ظهرها و تبكي على القبر الرمزيّ للشاعر العظيم ...أبو اللغة الإيطالية كما سمّوه , هذه الفتاة هي فلورنسا ,في علامة على ندمها على ما صنعتْه لدانتي , و كأنّها تطلب الصفح منه . كثير من هذه المدن تحتاج فقط أن تعود -كما كانت- فتاةً ... و تبكي على أبنائها و عشاقها الكثيرين الذين ملؤوا المدافن و المنافي و العتمات.

  • Fernando
    2019-04-04 07:57

    Símbolo inequívoco de su época, esta obra de arte inmortalizada en letras, es un legado universal que Dante nos dejó para siempre. Clásico de proporciones épicas que disfruté de principio a final. Algunas consideraciones:Mucha gente lee La Divina Comedia interesada solamente por el Infierno, y no es para menos. Si alguien tiene la inmensa suerte de leer la edición ilustrada por Gustave Doré, llega al Paraíso como si acompañara a Dante buscando a Beatriz. El Purgatorio es tan, pero tan bueno, que me atrapó. Dante describe los siete pecados capitales de forma tan maravillosa... El Paraíso es el la parte que menos gusta. Muchos la consideran tediosa y de una carga teológica muy alta (bueno, estas eran las convicciones de Dante en la época).Es cierto también que por la obra desfila una larga galería de personajes que no conocemos, por eso, es muy importante contar con una edición que contenga notas aclaratorias, sobre todo de orden histórico más que mitológicas o alegóricas.La elección de Virgilio no está hecha para nada al azar. Sólo un poeta de ese calibre podría haber acompañado a Dante al Infierno. Recordemos la brillantez de Virgilio para retratar el descenso de Eneas, quien también baja a los infiernos para ir a buscar a su padre Anquises, en el sexto capítulo de la Eneida.Yo leí una interesante edición de La Divina Comedia, publicada por Editorial Losada en tres libros, con el agregado de aclaratorias notas adicionales.Es menester leer La Divina Comedia junto con el Fausto de Goethe y El Paraíso Perdido de Milton, cuando de clásicos de esta naturaleza se habla.

  • Carlos
    2019-04-01 04:09

    Aclaro algo: no soy religioso, ni intelectual ni estudioso de los dioses o lo que pasa antes o después de la vida y la muerte. Leí el libro y lo encontré muy bueno.Leí la obra en un solo libro, pero no sabía que estaba dividido en 3 partes. Al parecer, Infierno es la obra más conocida, y no es para menos, pero vale la pena leer todo.Mi cabeza voló y voló con tanta información e imaginación en mi cabeza, el camino en el purgatorio, una vez estando en este, etc. Un viaje maravilloso y un libro muy denso para leer.No me sorprende la importancia que tenga Dante ahora después de haber escrito tamaña obra.¿Recomendable? Hay que ser abierto de mente para leerlo, no hay que ser ni fanático religioso ni fanático ateo. Un poco de mente amplia y objetiva, y les aseguro que disfrutarán muchísimo esta lectura. Son de esas que hacen bien para el ejercicio de la mente.

  • MJ Nicholls
    2019-04-16 04:56

    I propose an extra level in the Inferno for procrastinators and abandoners. I was planning to write a novel where three protagonists commit suicide and end up in Scottish Hell. Since overcrowding has plagued the old Scottish Hell HQ, the protagonists are forced to queue up for weeks on end before arriving at the building for processing. Upon their arrival, their sins are assessed by an administrator to determine which circle of Hell is appropriate for them. But due to cutbacks and financial instabilities, the three suicides are deemed unfit for service in Hell and are returned to their bodies. Back on Earth, the three characters return to their miserable lives, which they want to leave immediately. But before they commit suicide again, they have to break free from their mousy personalities and commit sins grievous enough to secure them a decent place in Hell. As the characters commit petty thefts and minor infelicities, the sin requirements to Hell become tougher and tougher, and they are repeatedly returned to their bodies. They spend their lives building up to larger and larger sins, constantly being returned to their bodies as the world around them becomes increasingly more depraved and violent. When they die, because the notion of “sin” has been completely reclassified to mean the most vile, sickest violations, they are secured a place Heaven for their relatively minor embezzlements, murders and rapes. I started this book but lost impetus halfway through. I was convinced this idea was derivative of other works (the Hell-as-bureaucracy has certainly popped up in British satire) and lost heart. I also lost heart halfway through the Inferno section of this, despite the translation being very fluent and readable. So I am going to the tenth circle, for the procrastinating bolter. (I did read the graphic novel version: partial redemption?)

  • Darwin8u
    2019-03-29 03:18

    Plumbing the crucible of happenstance.I should give a quick intro and say that I rarely EVER, EVER re-read a book. I should also mention that 3 years ago I had never cracked Dante's Divine Comedy. Now, I am finishing the Divine Comedy for the 3rd time. I've read Pinsky's translation of the Inferno. I've read Ciardi. I've flirted with Mandelbaum and danced with Hollander, but from Canto 1 of Inferno/Hell to Canto XXXIII of Paradiso/Heaven, I can't say I've read a better version than the Clive James translation. He replaced the terza rima (**A-B-A, B-C-B, C-D-C, D-E-D-E-E** a measure hard to write without poetic stretch marks in English) with the quatrain, and in doing so made the English translation his own. It gives the Divine Comedy the verbal energy and the poetry that makes inferior translations a slog and makes Dante so damn difficult to translate well. A mediocre translation might capture the stripes but lose the tiger. Clive James pulled off a master translation of one of the greatest works of art in any medium -- ever.

  • Mohammed Arabey
    2019-04-22 06:15

    هو أنا قررت أن الريفيو المبدئي يكون عن دان براونعارف يعني أيه مؤلف يعترف في أول روايته الأحدث أنه رغب أنه يكتب عن الأبداع في الأدب زي ماأمتعنا في معلوماته الرهيبة عن الفن في رواياته السابقة؟عارف لما مؤلف يكون هدف روايته -اللي يمكن ليا ملاحظات عنها وانا في ربعها الأول الأن- أنك تقرأ في الأدب الحقيقي؟..ويشجعك للأطلاع علي روائع الأدب زي ماعمل في تحفيزنا للبحث عن روائع الفنيشجعك للبحث والقراءة , وبالأخص تلك القطعة الأدبية الفريدة عن رحلة دانتي إلي الفردوس عبر الجحيمقطعة أدبية شعرية تسببت في عودة الكثيرين من الخطاة والمذنبين إلي الكنيسة والأيمان عارف يعني ايه لما يتسائل أزاي في ناس بيقولو علي نفسهم "مؤلفين" ولم يقرأوا عمل أدبي مستوحي عن اساطير يونانية وقصص دينية يهودية ومسيحية -حتي المعراج في الأسلام أيضا- أشاد بيه فنانين وأدباء وفلاسفة بحق؟“After listing the vast array of famous composers, artists, and authors who had created works based on Dante’s epic poem, Langdon scanned the crowd. “So tell me, do we have any authors here tonight?” Nearly one-third of the hands went up. Langdon stared out in shock. Wow, either this is the most accomplished audience on earth, or this e-publishing thing is really taking off.” حتي لو علي سبيل الأطلاع -لا أقول الأيمان المطلق بالطبع- كيف لم أقرأ حتي الأن مثل تلك التي يطلق عليها البعض "تحفة أدبية"؟مبدئيا ترجمة حنا يعقوب -مترجم النسخة التي اقرأها - مختصر المعلومات والهوامش لأبسط حد بحيث انه يتيح لك متعة قراءة النص نفسه وفهم فكرته وروحهإلي رحلتي إلي فردوس دانتي...فلأبدأ بجحيمهفي نفس وقت قراءتي للرائع, دان براونالريفيو الكامل عند الأنتهاء ان شاء الله

  • Fahima Jaffar
    2019-04-06 03:10

    أرجأتُ الشروعَ في قراءةِ هذا السِفر المذهلِ طويلاً. كعادتي/كعادتنا كنتُ ألتمسُ لهذا التكاسل المتطاولِ عذراً .. أملاً في اقتناصِ فرصةٍ مناسبةٍ أو مزاجٍ رائقٍ أو صباحٍ ماطرٍ أو أمسيةٍ شاعِرة. وَلم أدركَ أن أعذاراً كهذه لا تليقِ بغيرِ الأعمال العابرة الصغيرة.. تلكَ التي نجترُّ أحداثها بتململِ قطّةٍ متطلَّبة. أمّا إنجازٌ كـ"الكوميديا" لا تملكُ عندهُ إلا أن تنفكَّ قهراً من عوالمك الرتيبة لتقعَ في ثراءِ عوالمه الآسرةِ وكثافتها وتباينها المدهشين. سيهبط بكَ دانتي من غفلةِ "اليمابيسِ" إلى منازلِ الجحيم.. وَمروراً بعتباتِ المطهرِ يعرجُ بروحكَ إلى مراتبِ الفردوسِ سماءً سماءَ.. وَأنشودةً أنشودة، ترنيمةً كانت أم تضرّعاً، ابتهالَ متطهّرٍ أم تسبيحَ قدّيسٍ أم شهقةَ ملعون.. ستُصغي فسمعكَ اليومَ "حديد"."عملٌ يكثّفُ لحظةً مفصليّةً من تاريخ إيطاليا وَالعالم، ومن صراع الكنيسة والدولة، والعقل والإيمان، وَالشرق والغرب، كما يبلور تجربةً شخصية ندر أن عرفنا ما يضارعها في الشجاعة والعمق ومواصلة المغامرة الروحية والشعرية حتى أقصاها" ص. 15كوميديا دانتي الإلهية تتجاوز الكوميديا بما هيَ خِفّةٌ وَدُنوَّ شأن، فإن صنَّفَ ابن فلورنسةَ منحوتته الفريدة – التي استغرقته ما يقارب الثلاثة عشر عاماً – بمقاييسَ أرسطيّةَ لعاميّةِ لغته أو لمختتمِ متنه، لا يغيبُ عن أيِّ قارئ أن ما بينَ يديهِ رحلةٌ مضنيةٌ أشبه بتسلِّقِ جبال الأولمب للُقيا الآلهة أو بامتطاءِ البحرِ في مغامرةٍ عوليسية. دانتي لم يخلق الإيطالية بحبرِ ريشتهِ فحسب، بل أعادَ نضدَ العوالمِ الأرضية والأخرويةِ، وَأيقظَ حواسَّها على جواهرِ السمعِ وَالبصر. جعلَ دانتي من حُبِّهِ لـ"بياتريشي" مأثرةً كونيّةً استدعى لها أرواحَاً وثنيةً ومسيحيّة – من فيرجيليو حتّى توما الإكويني -، وَبرأَ ظواهرَ فيزيائيةً وَأسطورية، وَسخّرَ زمانَ الرومانيةِ - قبل المسيحِ وَبعده على حدٍّ سواء – ليمجِّدَ هذا المُنجَزَ العظيمَ وَيختطَّ لمبدعهِ مقاماً أعظم."إن ابن فلورنسة يعمد إلى قراءة مجهرية لأدنى تفاصيل تجربته في أبعادها الذاتية والتاريخية، الواقعية والخيالية. من هنا قيل عن عمله إنه أكبر تظاهرةٍ فنيةٍ للذاكرة. تُقبل المعطيات إليه وتسعفها على الفور بنْيات لغةٍ ناشئة أضاف لها هو الكثير فيما يكتب، مثلما قيل إن قوافي اللغة الإيطالية كانت تأتي إليه راكضة وتروح تتوالد تحت بنانه." ص. 122أمَّا الجهدُ الذي بذله المبدع "كاظم جهاد" ليُخرِجَ للعربية مَتناً بهذه القوّةِ وذا التماسك، فحريٌّ بأن نرفَعَ له العمائمَ وَالقُبَّعات. المترجمُ لم يكتفِ بحدودِ الأصلِ، بل جَهُدَ ليطّلعَ على مختلف الترجماتِ سواءً الصادر منها باللغة العربيّة أو بما كان في متناول معرفته من اللغات الأخرى. كما أمدَّ ترجمتهُ بحواشيَ مستفيضةٍ تخدمُ النصَّ شروحاً وَتعليقاتٍ وَنقدا، وَأوجزَ في مدخله النقدي أهمَّ القراءاتِ التي تناولت "الكوميديا الإلهية".. على رأسِها قراءات بورخيس وَجاكلين ريسيه (الشاعرة الفرنسيّة التي استعان جهاد بترجمتِها كثيراً في عمله هذا). هذا المدخل الذي أجَّلتُ المُضيَّ فيه شغَفاً بالمتن، غير إني ما إن فرغت منه حتى وجدتني بأمسِّ الحاجةِ لقراءةٍ ثانيةٍ للكوميديا، ذلكَ أنَّ موجزَ القراءاتِ النقدية يُضئ جوانبَ في النصِّ يغفلُ عنها القارئ البسيطُ العابرُ – مثلي – إلى تخومِ المعنى، كما يعيدُ تعريفَ تجربتنا القرائية وَيوسِّعَ مداها.

  • Saleh MoonWalker
    2019-04-15 03:04

    تنها جلدی که ساختار ادبی مناسبی داشت و توصیفات جالبی رو انجام داده بود فقط جلد دوزخ بود، که به گفته شوپنهاور تنها دلیل اینکه دانته موفق شد که انقدر خوب زجر کشیدن رو شرح بده این بود که تمام عذاب های ذکر شده نمود عذاب های موجود در همین دنیاست فقط به صورت مبالغه آمیز تر، به همین دلیل بود که نسخه برزخ ضعیف تر عمل کرد، و از اونجایی که نمیشد مقدار خوبی و تمام صفاتی رو که برای بهشت توصیف میکنن رو به واقعیت تبدیل کرد بدون اینکه دچار ملال بشن، جلد بهشت ضعیف ترین بخش از این سه گانه بود که فقط به نقل قول از شخصیت های مختلف که همراه دانته بودند می پرداخت از توصیف مستقیم بهشت سر باز میزد.یادمه 16 سالم بود این کتاب رو خوندم.

  • Ahmad Sharabiani
    2019-04-19 06:55

    Commedia = Divine Comedy, Dante AlighieriThe Divine Comedy (Italian: Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is widely considered the preeminent work in Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century. It helped establish the Tuscan language, in which it is written, as the standardized Italian language. It is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.تاریخ نخستین خوانش: ماه جولای سال 1976 میلادیعنوان: کمدی الهی در سه جلد: دوزخ - برزخ - بهشت؛ سروده: دانته آلیگری؛ مترجم: شجاع الدین شفا؛ تهران، امیرکبیر، 1335؛ البته که ترجمه های دیگران از نامداران و مترجمان این اثر کم بدیل جداگانه معرفی شده اندسرود اول بهشتجلال ِ آن کس که گرداننده ی همه چیز است، سرتاسر جهان آفرینش را به فرمان خویش دارد. ولی در اینجا (آسمان) بیشتر، و در جاهای دیگر کمتر متجلی است. بدان آسمانی رفتم، که بیش از هر آسمان دگر از فروغ او بهره مند است، و چیزهایی را دیدم که آن کس که از آن بالا فرود آمده باشد، نه میداند و نه میتواند بازگفت. زیرا که حس ادراک ما، با نزدیکی به مایه ی اشتیاق خود، چنان مجذوب میشود، که حافظه ی ما را یارای همراهی با آن نمیماند. با این همه، آنچه را که از قلمرو مقدس (بهشت) در گنجینه ی اندیشه، جای توانسته ام داد، اکنون مایه ی این سرود خویش میکنم، و بازش میگویم. ای «آپولوی» نیک نهاد، برای این سهم آخرین، مرا آن اندازه، از نبوغ خویش عطا کن، که برای سپردن تاج افتخار محبوب خود به کسان، از آنان طلب میکنی... ا. شربیانی...

  • James Capp
    2019-03-31 05:58

    I first read this poem four years ago as part of a dare. And by “dare,” I mean a professor listed it on the syllabus and I had to read it and then write papers about it. The next summer, I wanted to read it again on account of the graphic imagery of Inferno and Purgatorio. The punishments/reparations are mindblowing, scary, and beautiful. Everyone should at the very least skim Inferno. Particularly in Inferno, the political references are funny and provocative, and the historical significance of this epic poem is right up there with the Bible and Paradise Lost for me. Paradiso is far more abstract and sappy than the other books. I re-read all three last Fall because I’ve always felt attached to this work, and I figure you gotta read something at LEAST three times before you say its your favorite book. But yeah, this is my favorite book. It makes me want to learn Italian and read Dante’s Italian (and the whole part about him writing it in Italian instead of Latin pissed off so many people—again, the history of this piece is great). It makes me want to visit Italy. It makes me want to write something worth reading!

  • Wendy
    2019-04-11 07:21

    I finished it! Someone, bring me my medal...the Inferno is Hieronymus Bosch with wordsA few caveats to this review: I am not a theologian, philosopher, medieval historian, Dante expert, nor astrologist. I am, however, a reader who wants to read "all of teh books" and I appreciate vivid imagery and interesting human interactions in fiction. I tackled the recent Clive James version of Dante's Divine Comedy--no footnotes or canto introductions here--because I just wanted to let the story wash over me, to see how much I could "get" on my own without knowing why Dante's father's baker's frenemy's ex-lover's dog-handler was sitting upside-down in the burning pitch in Hell. And when it comes to vivid imagery, the Inferno delivers. Surprisingly (to me), the Purgatorio was also fairly easy to follow, as Dante and Virgil continue up a ceaseless barren slope past the singing, self-flagellating sinners who do their time for various sins and, each time an angel wipes an ash-mark from their foreheads, become one level closer to heaven.From reading the inferno in high school I had recalled Dante as a sniveling, swooning sissy--but on this re-read found myself very much liking his sensitivity and sense of empathy, especially to many of the sinners in hell (well, as long as they are classical figures. If he knows them, he's more likely to go stomp on their heads). Guide Virgil has to chastise him numerous times to keep him from getting (understandably) emotionally mired in the horrors he witnesses. My favorite parts, besides perhaps the insult-throwing trident-wielding demons, were the back-and-forths between Dante and Virgil. Sadly, though, Virgil is barred from entering heaven, and in the third book Paradiso we are stuck with the so-nauseatingly-lovely-and-perfect-that-you-just-want-to-smack-her Beatrice. Regardless of this new guide, I found Dante's heaven as impenetrable as listening to someone describe an acid-trip. It struck me as a sort of renaissance-era Yellow Submarine (complete with its own Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds) though the incessant choral music wasn't quite as catchy.Lucy in the sky with DanteSeriously, I'm amazed at how similar this clip from Yellow Submarine is to the Paradiso! Watch it! *EDIT* Sorry, it looks like the Submarine link keeps breaking, so my apologies if it doesn't work. If I notice a problem, I will fix it! Should be working now, anyway.

  • Steven Walle
    2019-04-09 04:09

    This is one of the best epic poems ever! I highly recommend everyone reads this, Homer's works, and Virgil's works. This was a great translation and a wonder forward and glossery.5 huge stars!Enjoy and Be Blessed.Diamond

  • peiman-mir5 rezakhani
    2019-04-10 04:58

    ‎دوستانِ گرانقدر، «دانته» نویسندهٔ ایتالیایی از آن دسته از مذهبی هایست که نوشته هایش برایِ مذهبی هایی همچون شخصِ خودش جالب میباشد و برای خردگرایان و اندیشمندان، نوشته های «دانته» که از موهوماتِ غیر عقلانی بسیاری تشکیل شده است، هیچگونه گیرایی و جذابیتی ندارد، حتی اگر به چشمِ طنز به این موهومات نگاه کنیم... تنها موردِ قابل توجه در این کتاب، ترجمهٔ بسیار عالی از مردِ خردمند «شجاع الدین شفا» بود.. درود بیکران بر ایشان‎عزیزانم، در این کتاب نیز شما چیزی جز موهومات و خزعبلاتِ دینی و مذهبی چیزی نمیبینید، وگرنه مطمئن باشید از آن در کتبِ درسی بچه هایِ بیخبر از همه جایِ ایرانی، یاد نمیکردند... هرچه نوشته های موهوم و خرافاتِ مذهبی وجود دارد در کتب درسی فرزندانِ سرزمینمان چپانده شده است‎در "کمدی الهی" نویسنده یعنی «دانته» نه حاضر است کسانی چون بقراط و جالينوس و ابن سينا و مزدک و زرتشت و دمکریت و صدها اندیشمند و انسانِ بزرگ را در آتش دوزخ و جهنم موهوم و احمقانهٔ مذهبیان بسوزاند و نه می تواند آنها را بخاطر مسيحی نبودنشان در بهشت جای دهد، لذا ناگزير پناهگاهی بنام "لیمبو" برای آنان در دوزخِ موهوم می سازد که این خردمندان هم در جهنم باشند و هم از آتش جهنم در امان باشند‎خوب عزیزانم، شما انتظار دارید چنین نوشته هایی که برگرفته از عقدهٔ بیخردانهٔ مذهبی و دینی میباشد را با لذت بخوانیم و از آن تعریف و تمجید کنیم!؟ هیچ خردمندی به بهشت و جهنمِ موهومِ ادیانِ گوناگون و بخصوص ادیانِ پوچِ سامی اعتقاد ندارد ‎عزیزان و نورِ چشمانم، دقت کنید که تا چه اندازه منطق این ادیان و مذهب های سامی ابلهانه میباشد... یعنی بهشت موهومشان که بیشتر به فاحشه خانه شباهت دارد و صبح تا شب همه بر روی آلتِ یکدیگر ووول میخورند، برای خودشان است.. جهنمشان نیز برای کسانی که به ادیان بند تمبانی و غیر انسانی سامی (یهودیت-مسیحیت-اسلام) اعتقاد ندارد و خردگرا بوده اند... یعنی تکليف همهٔ آنهایی که پيش از ظهور مسیحیت و اسلام، به جهان آمده و از جهان رفته اند چه می شود؟ از پيدايش نخستين انسان ها در روی زمين حدوداً سه ميليون سال و از پيدايش انسان های امروزی 30 تا 35 هزار سال می گذرد. اولين تمدن ها نيز پنج تا هفت هزار سال پيش شکل گرفته اند، در صورتيکه از آغاز مسيحيت تنها دو هزار سال و از ظهور اسلام تنها هزار و چهارصد سال می گذرد. اگر هيچکدام از آدميانی که پيش از اين دوهزار ساله در روی زمين زيسته اند راهی به بهشت نداشته باشند به چه دليلی، و با چه مجوزی بايد اين راه را نداشته باشند؟ و تازه در ميان آدميان همين دوهزار ساله نيز، آنهائيکه چون بوميان آمريکایی يا استراليایی يا مردم آفريقا اساساً نامی از مسيحيت يا از اسلام نشنيده و با آنها آشنائی نداشته اند چرا بايد تا ابد و تا جهان باقیست، در آتش دوزخ بسوزند يا در بی تکليفی برزخ بسر برند؟ ‎این منطق بتِ «اللهِ اکبر» تازیان است!؟ یا گربهٔ سوخته شده در صندوق «یهووه»!!؟ یا منطق خدای عیسی!؟ این چه قانونِ ابلهانه و نابخردانه ای است؟!؟ مذهبی ها و به خصوص عرب پرستان، آنقدر به این موهومات و خزعبلات اعتقاد داشته باشید تا مغزتان از این پوچ تر شود----------------------------------------------‎امیدوارم این ریویو برایِ شما خردگرایانِ آگاه، مفید بوده باشه‎«پیروز باشید و ایرانی»

  • Brent Weeks
    2019-04-09 07:05

    Dante? Awesome! I’ve always wanted Brent to review a game from the Devil May Cry series! Which one did you play?Er… well, let me explain. I wanted a space with my new website design to talk about video games—I love them. But I also want to, from time to time, engage with other media. “What I’m Playing?” fits in a shorter space than “What form of media is Brent playing or reading or watching, and what particular title currently, and what is his take on that?”So, uh, really this sidebar is “Brent’s Brain at Play” … so, yeah, it’s false advertising. Sorry.I’ve just re-read The Divine Comedy for the first time since four miserable weeks in 1995. Miserable not because I hated Dante. I read the Dorothy Sayers translation in terza rima, and I loved much of it. The misery came from the class: Freshman Honors English, semester 1. This was my introduction to college. One semester, one class: 4,200 pages of reading.I still believe this was the class that convinced the smartest student in the college—I’m talking ‘pun in Latin and expect others to laugh along with you’ smart—to drop out and become a priest. Little known fact: that kid punched me in the face once. (A little known fact that will doubtless come up when he’s up for canonization—he was a pretty darn good guy. Is still, I assume!) It was not the only fight I got into in college, oddly enough, though it was the only one where I didn’t hit back… So I guess you could say I… lost?But c’mon, you try to hit back after a future pope punches you. If the word ‘discombobulating’ had been invented for any legitimate purpose, it would have been for that moment. (But that’s a pure hypothetical. Don’t combobulate if you hope to copulate, nerds.)But I digress. Every student in Honors English 101 had a B or lower. (B- here.) Our professor was a poet. He really liked the word “wen”. No further explanation needed, right? The end of the semester was fast approaching. Panic set in for all these kids who’d never earned less than an A- in their 18 blesséd years, sir, by my troth!The professor said we could add AN ENTIRE LETTER GRADE to our grade if we… outlined the entire Divine Comedy. That’s… a trilogy of epic poems.It was an assignment that would later save my soul. But that’s another story.Imagine thirty sweating honors class freshmen, some of whom had scholarships riding on their GPA, others—far more importantly—had their entire self-worth riding on their GPA. All of us faced Thanksgiving Break with the shame of a B. It had just become Thanksgiving “Break”.There were three weeks from Thanksgiving until finals, when the assignment was due. Three weeks in the inferno—or, if one paced oneself correctly, one would only spend one week in Inferno, one in Purgatorio, and the last in Paradiso.Oh, let me tell you, how those freshmen rejoiced their way through Paradiso. Well, maybe the final canto. Paradiso’s a bit of a slog, dramatically.Want to see a textbook definition of subclinical triggering? Just whisper “Bernard of Clairvaux” to any veteran of Dr. Sundahl’s H ENG 101.*insert meme here*The angel on my right shoulder: *No, really, don’t.*All this is prologue. (Dizzam, bruh, that’s some Jordan-esque level prologue.)On to the review.I was glad to see that after 20 years, Dante hasn’t become dated. Ages well, Ol’ Danny Alighieri. Okay, fine. I should say, “more dated”. One thing in particular struck me repeatedly about Dante, reading him now as a 39-year-old fantasy writer, versus reading him as an 18-year-old college freshman, and I mean so oft-repeated I felt like my face belonged to a P.I. in a noir novel–I mean repeatedly like the bass thunder from the stereo in a 75hp Honda owned by that pepperoni-faced dude who thinks he’s auditioning for Fastest and Even More Furiousest Than Evar:The chutzpah. The sheer audacity. Dante was writing the work without which he would be forgotten by most everyone except Italian lit majors. He’s coming into this famous but soon to be forgotten, like the English Poet Laureate Robert Southey–you’ve heard of him, right? No. So before Dante’s written his Great Book, he presumes himself into the company of the all-time greats. (He deserves it, but he jumps into that place like that kid challenging Mario Andretti to a quick couple laps for pink slips.)But not only that. He, a Christian (if one who finds himself lost along the Way in the dark wood of middle age), readily consigns foes and even acquaintances—some not yet dead, if I remember correctly—to Hell. If there’s one thing the modern mainstream Christian doesn’t do, it’s to presume the eternal destination of others. As C.S. Lewis said, (paraphrasing) “When we get to Heaven, there will be surprises.” That lack of presumption is bolstered on our culture’s favorite partial Scripture “Judge not lest ye be judged” which goes on “For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.” Most Christians today are like, “Yeah, I’d prefer a really lenient measure, thanks. So I’ll just not presume to judge anyone else, either. Plus, not judging at all gets me thrown out of way fewer parties.” Dante, not so much. He’s like, “This pope from a few years back? Totally burning in Hell, right now. Look at the evil he did!”Dante does this while, as far as I can tell (as a non-medievalist, and no longer even a Roman Catholic) remaining himself orthodox. He doesn’t question the pope’s authority as it was understood then. Check this example out: that evil pope who himself is burning in hell? He’d corrupted one of his own courtiers, who had previously been some kind of shady guy, but repented, turning his back on all the evil he’d done earlier in his life. (Think like Godfather 3.) The kicker? Evil Popey makes him go back! (“I try to get out and the Pope (!) keeps pulling me back in!”) Evil Pope gets him to betray some folks, by promising our repentant Michael Corleone, “Hey, yeah what I’m asking you to do is evil, but I’ll forgive you for all this evil you do for me. I’m the Vicar of Christ, so I can totally give you an Evil Pass.” So the courtier does said evil stuff. And gets ‘pardoned’.Now the demons in hell that Dante encounters are super pissed, because “Hey, that guy should totally belong to us! He did evil stuff!”But Dante DOESN’T question that the evil pope effectively uses a loophole to get around God’s perfect justice. Nope. That courtier guy is heading for heaven—except the demons later tricked him into committing suicide by demons, a sin for which the pope apparently forgot to preemptively forgive him for.This whole episode is listed as proof that the pope was evil: he used his authority to pervert eternal justice. That’s really, really bad. Later Protestants would say, “This is redonkulus! No one gets to use a loophole to escape God! That’s the whole point of eternal justice: often on Earth justice isn’t served, but we can deal with that because we know no one can escape God’s justice. If your doctrine lets people fool God, your doctrine is wack, yo. [Also, that you have Evil Popes in the first place seems to point out a problem in your system.]”Dante’s audacity though, goes further than merely presuming himself in the company of the greatest of the greats, and also being comfortable judging the quick and the dead: Dante sets out to out-epic Homer and Virgil.Homer [with a battered old harp, ratty beard, and mismatched sandals–dude’s blind, give him a break on the fashion policing, people]: “Friends, Achaians, countrymen, lend me your ears. I’mma tell you about big war and a big voyage with the ideal Greek man.”Homer’s poetry and story-telling, his nuance and his imagery would capture and define an entire culture, and deeply influence many others through the present. It’s hard to overstate his impact.Virgil [strides forth in a solid gold toga, taking a bit of snuff from a slave]: “No offense, old sport, but your hero was bollocks, Homes. He was actually the bad chap, and not nearly as wonderful as you make him out to be. Let’s talk about that Trojan War thing, and I’ll subvert the Hades out of your narrative.”Oh snap.Virgil is a master of poetry and storytelling who is self-consciously telling the story of an entire people and their founding mythos, (small) warts and all (sorry ’bout that, Dido! a real James Bond always loves ’em and leaves ’em… burning!). Virgil meant his epic to be studied and admired by audiences high and low, and he meant to define his Romans as the best of the best. Sort of “the arc of history is long, but it bends toward Rome.”Dante [ambles up in a Led Zeppelin t-shirt and bell-bottoms]: “You guys are far out. Wish I could have heard your stuff, Home-bre, I’ve heard it’s real groovy, but the Saracens haven’t invaded yet with their hippie zeal to give us the LP bootleg translations of your work from the Greek. Sing it for me sometime. I’m sure I’ll dig it. Anyway, bros, thanks for inviting me to your drum circle here, but never start a land war in Asia unless you’re the Mongols, never get in a wit-fight to the death with a guy named Westley, and never, ever invite John Bonham to your drum circle. You guys thought small. Nah, it’s cool and everything, but really? Some guy on a boat? Some other pious guy on a different boat who lost a war to the first guy? I’mma let you finish swiftly here, but I’m going to tell the story of all creation, do world-building that includes the entire universe—both the physical and metaphysical worlds: earth, hell, purgatory, and heaven, AND show how my main man Jesus changed everything, aided in my quest by numerous holy Jesus groupie chicks and the spirit of Virgil himself. Hope you’re down with that, Virg. I mean, you’re an Italian, I’m an Italian, we’re pretty much bros, but I’m like your intellectual successor and stuff? Oh yeah, and because I’m after Christ, I really have an unfair advantage on you, because you were the bee’s knees. Seriously, love your stuff, I even own the b-sides of your pastoral poetry. So if I’m a little better than you, it’s purely happenstance: You came before Ludwig drums and Remo drumheads, man! If someone told you ‘More cowbell!’ you’lda been like ‘A cowbell? In music? What’s next, balancing a shield on a post and banging on it with a stick?!’ By the way, I use Paiste cymbals. I’ll show you later.”That story of all creation includes the pagans. Dante also sets about to reconcile, or at least appropriate, the gods and monsters of antiquity—though sometimes not very successfully. I’m like, Hey, big D, if some of the figures of Greek mythology are real, are all of them? If they’re real and they did some of the stuff we’ve heard they did, where was God in that? Are these all actually just demons just playin’ around? Fess up, c’mon. You can tell me, buddy, I understand. You just wanted monsters, didn’tcha? You got stuck on that one part and were like, How can I get Dante and Virgil out of this one? Oh, I know! A big ass dragon flies up out of the pit, scares the bejeepers out of them, and then totally lets them become the Dragonriders of Burn and head on down further!Oh, did I mention that while doing all this, Dante maintains that he’s writing on four levels at once: 1) The literal (which, you know, literally means the literal, the stuff that happens—hey, I write on that level too!). 2) The allegorical (that is, there’s what he calls “truth hidden beneath a beautiful fiction”) so being lost in a dark wood in your middle years might be an allegory for getting lost in your life, or even a mid-life crisis. 3) The moral (which explores the ethical implications of a work of fiction) so what do you think about Odysseus sitting on the beach crying to go home to his wife every day, and then banging goddesses every night? What do you learn about the power of hope or forgiveness when Luke Skywalker confronts Darth Vader? That’s the moral level; and 4) The anagogical. Yeah, you’re not going to see this word unless you’re talking about Dante, I’d guess. I had to look it up again. I was honestly proud of myself for merely remembering the word. The anagogical is a level of spiritual interpretation. This is when the work captures something that is eternally true. In a Platonic sense, it would be when you step out of the cave and instead of looking at shadows on the wall of thing that are True, you look at the things themselves. For Dante, this is of course expounding scripture in a way that captures “a part of the supernal things of eternal glory”. (Supernal: being of, or coming from, on high.)This is the level where you say, the characters Dante and his guide Virgil are hiking up Mt Purgatory, but Virgil is literally Virgil, a great poet who lived before Christ and thus is a pagan, so when Dante and Virgil get to the top of Mt Purgatory, Virgil can’t get into Heaven—you need Jesus for that. “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. None come to the Father except through me”. (Virgil’s not exactly being punished for being a pagan; he gets to hang out talking with all the other awesome pagans forever.) But Virgil is ALSO an embodiment of Reason, so when Virgil and Dante reach a rad curtain of fire up on the top of Mt Purgatory, Virgil can (as Reason) say, “Bro, you got this. You know there’s people on the other side. You know this is the only way to get there. You therefore know they jumped through this curtain. Ergo, you won’t get fried. Probably. Well, at least not everyone who jumps through gets a thermite sun-tan.”But Reason can’t go through that curtain himself. The thing that makes you jump through a curtain of fire isn’t, ultimately, reason. Reason can’t get you to Heaven. Thus, the anagogic lesson is that belief is, ultimately, an act of the will. Or, in the common phrase of which this scene may be the origin, one must take a Leap of Faith.Did I mention Dante’s doing this while writing poetry? And apparently his poetry is pretty good? (Not knowing Italian, I can’t say. The Sayers translation I read in college was way more beautiful than the Clive James version I listened to this time. Sorry, Clive, personal preference.)Now, I should probably address the world-building, too, seeing how world-building is something fantasy writers ought to know something about. (Yes, hecklers in the back, I hear you. Notice the caveat ‘ought to’? Now run along and play. With scissors.) In the mind of your inconsistently humble correspondent, Dante’s world-building is bold, presumptuous, brilliant, and a blithering mess.Whereas Dante’s treatment of pagan mythology would likely appeal to the common reader and just as likely outrage scholars who knew enough to ask questions, in his world-building, he seems to completely ignore the common readers, and go straight for the art- and map-geeks. You’ve probably seen those elaborate medieval drawings of the world Dante lays out.(I don’t even know if most of them are faithful to the text or even agree with each other, other than the order of the circles of hell and the like.) On the one hand, this world-building is ingenious. Stunning. (Anyone know if he borrowed most of this, or invented most of it? I know he was synthesizing a lot of speculation and Christian cosmology, but I don’t know how much of his work on this is original.)It all hangs together, literally and symbolically and morally. Satan is at the center of gravity? Like, literally? At first, you’re like, “Huh?”Well, he’s got to have his head visible in hell; he’s the king there, and he’s got to be scary. How scary is a guy with buried head-down with his butt in the air like a North Dakotan bike rack? (Sorry, old Montanan North Dakota joke there.) But when you think further, well, hell has inverted values, so after you come past him at the center of gravity, and into a vast crater–he left a giant crater when he was thrown out of heaven. Of course he did! And here he IS head down and not so scary, but he’s also head down because he’s buried in his sin. He’s at the bottom of a pit. Of course he is! He’s denied the light of heaven, his face must be buried. And so on.But most of the things that I caught on this second listening, I caught only because of the art I’d seen, and the explication of college professors and footnotes back when I’d read it before. Those professors taught me that the common way for people to experience a book during Dante’s time was most usually that someone would stand and read it to everyone else. (Audiobooks go WAY back.) This is a terrible way to experience what he’s doing, though.When you only listen to the Divine Comedy, there’s no way for you to understand a lot of the imagery. Not a real quote, but a realistic one: “Then I turned left 90 degrees, and saw, up at the point where the sun was crossing the mountain, another path veering to starboard under the sign of the Cygnus at the fourth hour of the morning” oh, and time moves differently in Purgatory. Or something. I still don’t get that part.This kind of world-building doesn’t work at all for the medium. Certainly the first listeners wouldn’t have any art or maps to help them figure this stuff out in real time, while the reciter continues reciting the poetry describing this weird journey. So it’s definitely weird, it’s opaque, and it’s kind of bad art–at least, bad world-building for what is, at core, more of a travelogue than an epic adventure.But it works… for the artists and the map-geeks, who fan art the hell out of it.Now, I call Dante’s world-building presumptuous because leaving the explanations for all the weirdness intelligible ONLY to those geeks ONLY works because Dante was famous. If he hadn’t been famous already, people would go, “Huh, this doesn’t make sense to me. So it probably doesn’t make sense. What garbage.”So it kind of works in the way Ikea instructions work–if you’ve got a bunch of Ikea engineers in your living room to help you out: “Oh, that was a concise way to explain that… now that you did it all for me.”Dan, my boy, that is some… what’s the term for accurate hubris? Oh, self-confidence. I guess it’s still that even when the SELF-CONFIDENCE IS GIANT, YO!All this! Look at all that! He’s doing all that… and more. At the SAME time! All that, and then… Dante flinches.Dante gets daunted.Bro!Bro.When this pilgrim who has had to fight past so many lesser demons (using his special access badge that says, I’m-on-a-holy-mission-one-of-the-roadies-from-JC-and-the-Sonshine-Band-says-it’s-cool) finally makes it to Satan’s circle and crosses the frozen lake of Coccytus, do you know what Satan says?Do you know how Satan addresses the first non-traitor to visit Satan since he was thrown out of Heaven? Satan himself… just doesn’t notice. Sure, the big guy is busy gnawing on Judas, Brutus, and Cassius but he’d been gnawing on those guys for thirteen hundred years!But nope. Satan says nothing. There’s no, “Yeah, I let you come all the way down here by my satanic will. It was all a trap. Now you can rot with the worst of them. I am literally going to eat your idiot face for eternity!”There’s no big rescue from the monstrously huge arms and hands as that giant is stuck in the frozen lake of Coccytus. No last minute rescue by an angel.Nope, Satan just doesn’t notice. Even when Dante grabs onto his hairy ass and climbs around him through the center of the universe where gravity reverses itself and climbs out to go to Mt Purgatory, literally past his butthole. Satan. Doesn’t. Notice. Doesn’t notice the man playing George of the Jungle on his hairy hip. And climbing…Past. His. Butt.Weaksauce, Ali D! Lotta buildup to go limp at the finish! It’s like you’ve never played a video game in your life.I’m sure someone can defend it. Great literature of this magnitude will always inspire defenders. But just because something is great in... (READ MORE AT

  • Liz Janet
    2019-04-23 10:08

    “Through me you pass into the city of woe:Through me you pass into eternal pain:Through me among the people lost for aye.Justice the founder of my fabric moved:To rear me was the task of power divine,Supremest wisdom, and primeval love.Before me things create were none, save thingsEternal, and eternal I shall endure.All hope abandon, ye who enter here.”There is no much one can say about this marvelous poem that has not been said before. One of the greatest epic poems to have been written, ever. The book is divided into three books, Inferno, meaning hell; Purgatorio, meaning purgatory; and Paradiso, meaning heaven. My favourite has always been Inferno, but Paradiso is highly underrated, as underrated as this brilliant work can possibly be.“The man who lies asleep will never waken fame, and his desire and all his life drift past him like a dream, and the traces of his memory fade from time like smoke in air, or ripples on a stream.” This is a basic view of the world as Dante knew it back in the 14th century, a human’s soul journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven.This poem mixes religion and science, everything from the most basic Christian Dogma to early Islamic astronomy, with a lot of his political views mixed in. At the time this work was being written, Dante was living in exile, he uses this work as a way to show his enemies and what he thought not only of figures of his time, but of historical figures in general, including Plato, Aesop, Alejandro Magno, Mary as well as legendary people, such as Abel, Diana, and Isaac. If one does not wish to read this simply because it is a long poem, read it for the historical view, so many interesting characters for history buffs. My favourite thing perhaps, was how he used his work to slam the people that harmed him, including Pope Boniface VIII, the man who exiled him. Basically, apart from this being a religious work, and a historical work, it is a big “F-you” to everyone he disagreed with him, or harmed him in any way, those parts were hilarious to me. I have a horrible sense of humour. Basically, read this poem, there is: Satan, angels, the circles of hell, philosophers in Tartarus, a reference to the Muslim conquest as “Dragon,” “the bird of Jove” attacking a church, a bunch of symbolism for “Reason,” unnecessary invocation of the Muses, Tristan and Isolde, many interesting murderers and a bunch of other cool stuff.

  • Sura✿
    2019-03-28 06:12

    الكوميديا الالهية هي ملحمة شعرية غنية عن التعريف , صادفتنا في المناهج الدراسية , في الروايات , في الافلام .وهي جولة الشاعر والسياسي الايطالي دانتي اليجيري في العالم السفلي , حيث كان اعتقادهم في السابق ان مركز الارض هو العالم الاخر . الملحمة تتألف من ثلاثة اجزاء , الجحيم , المطهر , واخيرا الفردوس و مجموع الابيات يفوق الـ اربعة عشر الف و ومئتين بيتاً و هذه الابيات تندرج في اناشيد , حيث يتالف الجزء الاول ( الجحيم من اربعة وثلاثون انشودة) بينما يتالف الجزأئين الاخرين من ثلاث وثلاثون انشودة . الجزء الاول - الجحيم يتالف من عدة حلقات كل حلقة مخصصة لفئة معينة من المذنبين , و يرى دانتي ان المحايدين يستحقون اشد العذاب يليهم الفاسقين و الشرهين و البخلاء وغيرهم من اعداء دانتي الذي يختار لهم حلقات و انواع من العذاب تتناسب ونظرته الشخصية لهم . الجحيم برأيي الافضل , ربما بسبب تكرار النمط في الجزأين الآخرين , او ان الاحداث والقصص فيه اكثر اثارة . المطهر هي المنطقة الوسطى بين الجحيم والنعيم حسب رؤية دانتي وفيها تشرق الشمس وتغيب , اي انه يوجد نهار وليل , يستأنف دانتي رحلته التماسا لضوء النهار ويتوقف ليلا, يتعب وينام وهكذا وهي مخصصة للكسالى , الاشخاص الذين لم تتح لهم فرصة التوبة الا في اللحظات الاخيرة , المتغطرسين , الامراء المقصرين في واجباتهم , البخلاء والمبذرين , النهمين , المنقادين خلف شهوات الجسد .و الفردوس يكاد النمط لا يختلف فيه عن الجزأئين السابقين , فهو مخصص لبايترشي والشخصيات التاريخية و معاصريه الذين لم يختلف دانتي وياهم بالافكار و او المصالح . تعكس هذه اللوحه الرائعه اضطرابات الوضع السياسي والديني في تلك الفتره , وسيطرة الكنيسه وفسادها انذاك لذا نرى دانتي يترنح بين الشاعر العاطفي الميال الى الرحمه وبين رجل الدين المتعصبالذي يحكم على من اعتنق دين غير المسيحيه بالعقاب في الجحيم , حتى وان كان نبيا -قبل او بعد المسيح- فهو يواجه هذا المصير.و هي تفسر سلوك الجماعات الدينية المتطرفة دينياً المشهورة هذه الايام , دانتي امتلك القلم فزج بخصومه في جحيم ابتدعه من خياله وخطه بقلمة , لو كانت بيده السلطه والسلاح لفعل ما يفعله الموجودين على الساحة هذه الايام . المفارقة المضحكة اننا نرى بعض الانبياء في الجحيم او المطهر , اولئك الذين سبقوا المسيح - او جاؤوا بعده- و بنفس الوقت نرى بعض الشخصيات المشهورة بالميثولوجيا اليونانية او الشخصيات الخيالية تنعم في الفردوس . كما اشرت ان ابيات هذه الملحة تفوق ال 14200 وهي غنية بالقصص و والاشارات المستمدة من الميثولوجيا او من ما عاصره دانتي , هي موسوعة غنية باحداث تاريخية عمرها الاف السنين , تحتاج الى دراسة وقراءة متأنية مطولة و بحث , لم اعطها حقها ابدا و قرأتها على عجل من باب الاطلاع لاغير.لم افهم الكثير من مقاصده واضطررت للبحث بين نسخة كاظم جهاد و حسن عثمان واحيانا بعض البحوث باللغة الانكليزية و مع ذلك فاتني الكثير , قرأتها في فترات متقطعه خلال شهرين و لم اعطها حقها ابدا . على الرغم من انتقاداتي الشخصية لافكار دانتي , و لدانتي شخصياً و تحفظي على بعض اجزاءها لكن لا يمكن نكران روعة هذا العمل الذي انجز قبل ما يفوق السبعمئة سنة بدون استخدام الانترنت مع فقر المصادر . ولا يمكن لنا ان ننسى ان الترجمة قللت من جودتها , فمهما كانت الترجمة جيدة لن تكون مثل النص الاصلي , عموما انصح بقراءة النسخة المترجمة من قبل كاظم جهاد . لوحه لـ ساندرو بوتوشيلي تجسد رواية دانتيالصور بحجمها الكبير>هنا* "يحدث غالباً ايها الاخ , أن يجبر المرءلكي يتفادى خطأً ما على فعل شيء كان ينبغي أن لا يقوم به "

  • Jon(athan) Nakapalau
    2019-04-14 09:02

    I must confess that so much was beyond my comprehension; but I think that is the mark of a great work of allows you to take what you can from it from where you are. I was so happy when I finished this book!

  • Marvin
    2019-04-05 11:09

    Written for the Celebrity Death Match Review Tournament(sung to the tune of "Minnie The Moocher")Folks, here´s a story about Winnie the Pooh-cherHe was a chubby Pooh-chie-koocherHe was fat and loved his honey but he was sweet and his heart was sunny(chorus)Hunny-Hunny-Hunny-hiHundee-hundee-hunndee-hoPigletee-pigletee-heeTiggery-Tiggery--HoHe met a dude whose name was Virgilwho hung around in hellish circles.He took the bear to hell for a matchwhere he planned to kick Pooh's ass.{chorus)Pooh saw things that curled his toesThings that burned and things that glowed.Pooh said, "Hey this isn't funny!And I don't see one ounce of honey."(chorus)Virgil said, "Remember where you are.This is hell not "Dancing with the Stars.Where people pay for their mortal sinsAnd I wonder Pooh, where your sins' been."Pooh now felt out of his league.For he knew hoarding honey was GreedAnd he wasn't the most energetic bloke"Oh dear! Sloth's a sin! Is there no hope?"(chorus)Virgil laughed and was enjoying his victory.When Beatrice descended and his win was history.Beatrice squealed like a schoolgirl in joy."Oh, what a cutie! A little Pooh Toy!.(chorus)Beatrice grabbed Pooh, to heaven he was lifted Where she cuddled him in eternal kissesThe moral of this tale is simple but cleverBeing terminally cute beats all Lucifer's levels.(chorus)Yea Win! Yea Win, Yea Win.(With apologies to Cab Calloway)

  • Foad
    2019-03-28 10:59

    ریویوی دوزخ:ریویوی برزخ:ریویوی بهشت:

  • Xime García
    2019-04-04 03:06

    Tengo dos razones por las cuales quise leer La Dinvina Comedia.1. Pretendo leer Inferno de Dan Brown en algún momento de mi vida y me parecía irrespetuoso (¿?) no leer la obra en la que fue basado antes.2. Porque soy una friki cuasi gamer y sí, me gusta Devil May Cry *la echan de GoodReads* Resulta que en la saga de videojuegos hay bastantes simbolismos con respecto a La Divina Comedia, y cada uno de los nombres de los personajes se corresponde con alguna que otra aparición dentro de la novela. Como obvio no pude quedarme cruzada de brazos ante la curiosidad, me dije "Bueno, si un videojuego me hace leer, bienvenido sea". Las razones son estúpidas, pero no me arrepiento.Me alegra tener también ciertos conocimientos previos a la lectura de este libro. La verdad que la edición que me compré ayudó muchísimo. Está escrito en prosa y contiene numerosas aclaraciones al pie de las páginas que me detallan todo mejor (por supuesto que con el tiempo se volvieron medio molestas, porque como que interrumpen la lectura). El prólogo de Jorge Luis Borges también está muy bonito. Antes de leer La Divina Comedia, recomendaría un par de cosas:•Tener mínima idea de los planteos de Platón y Aristóteles•Haber leído al menos uno de los libros de Platón (recomiendo El Banquete, es uno de los más fáciles y llevaderos), pues la manera de escribir y de plantear las cosas de Dante me fueron muy parecidas a las de él•Gustar mucho de la mitología y saber de antemano las diversas leyendas y los diferentes nombres con los que se conocieron a los dioses griegos/romanos•Haber estudiado algo de Catequesis en el colegio, o tener algún conocimiento de la Biblia, ya que hay demasiadas referencias a los sucesos del Nuevo y Antiguo Testamento. En fin, creo que no es un libro para cualquiera. Sinceramente no esperaba encontrarme con nada, así que todo fue novedoso. No digo que se haya vuelto denso, sino que repetitivo. Canto tras canto Dante va conociendo personas y personas que narran sus experiencias y vos estás ahí diciendo "¿Yyyyy amigo, para cuándo algo?". El tema de los círculos tanto en el Infierno como en el Purgatorio era lo que más me interesaba y por lo que La Divina Comedia más es conocida. El Paraíso me sorprendió, no esperaba que estuviera dividido de esa forma. Me encariñé demasiado con Vergil. Digoooo, el poeta Virgilio. Y con Dante. Bastante. Me puso un poco nerviosa la cantidad de veces que Dante mencionaba la belleza inmaculada de Beatriz, pero supongo que se lo puedo perdonar. En fin, nada, eso, vayan a jugar los videojuegos. EEEEH a leer el libro.

  • Manny
    2019-03-31 07:02

    For the Celebrity Death Match Review Tournament, The Divine Comedy versus 1984Gabriel, Michael and RaphaelCelestial ArchitectsEternityDear Mr. O'Brien,Thank you for your response to our recent tender. After due deliberation, we must regretfully inform you that we have decided not to implement your interesting plan for restructuring and downsizing the afterlife.Our accounting department confirms your statement that it would be more cost-effective only to retain Hell and wind up operations in Purgatory and Paradise. This would, however, directly conflict with our mission statement, which involves offering the chance of salvation to each and every soul. Our senior counsel, based on numerous precedents, contests your claim that this is in principle equivalent with "a boot grinding a human face, forever".We appreciate your ingenious compromise suggestion that the "integrated afterlife experience", as you describe it, could be administered by a board chaired by the late Pope Boniface VIII, and accept that this offer was made in good faith. None the less, our feeling is that Signor Boniface is not in all respects a suitable person to fill this role. The above notwithstanding, we are agreeable to implementing several of the specific points listed in Appendix C which concern improvements to the current structure of Hell. In particular, we will shortly be commencing an upgrade programme according to which the jaws of His Infernal Majesty will be substantially expanded. We are pleased to inform you that the work will be completed well before your own demise, according to our records scheduled for April 19, 1993, and we have already reserved a place for you next to Signor Cassius.Yours sincerely,Gabriel

  • Sue
    2019-04-08 10:02

    I am so glad for the Divine Comedy and Decameron group for providing the structure and encouragement which provided the impetus for my finally reading this classic! I am also very pleased that I decided to read John Ciardi's translation as his synopsis and notes added immeasurably to my reading. While personally I found Dante's travel's through Hell occasionally difficult, the Purgatorio and Paradiso (except for the first few scholarly cantos) flowed with beautiful poetry. And through it all, Dante maintained his amazing, and consistent, vision.No wonder this has stood the test of time.

  • Nelson Zagalo
    2019-04-14 05:01

    Apenas 50 anos após a sua morte, Florença que tinha exilado Dante (1265-1321), resolveu reganhar consciência e como tributo criar o Departamento de Estudos da Divina Comédia, oferecendo o cargo de diretor a Giovanni Boccaccio, poeta que tinha já escrito uma biografia sobre Dante (1357). Depois disso nada mais seria igual, a influência de Dante iria estender-se no espaço e no tempo, influenciando criações em todos os media e artes, como nenhuma outra obra, talvez rivalizada apenas pela própria Bíblia. Dante foi perseguido em vida, mas imortalizado na sua morte.[Para ler com imagens e links, seguir para:]Não é hoje muito relevante compreender os problemas de Dante em Florença já que as razões se prenderam com os clãs familiares da época e a relação entre a igreja e os governos. Mas é importante compreender que a Divina Comédia, escrito em exílio, funciona como uma espécie de resposta a todos aqueles que o perseguiram, uma vez que vão sendo amiúde distribuídos pela jornada encetada, do Inferno ao Paraíso, passando pelo Purgatório. Talvez não tenha sido fácil para muitos, ler no texto, escrito na língua comum, o Toscano e que viria a servir de base ao Italiano de hoje, acessível a toda a população letrada e não apenas a elite, os pecados e os potenciais castigos esperados. Num tempo, ainda muito dominado pela obscuridade, ver plasmado num conjunto de linhas a descrição daquilo que os esperava após a morte, terá tido o seu efeito. Mas talvez mais interessante, é que esse efeito, talvez pensado por Dante, foi muito para além dos seus alvos e tempo, nos séculos que se sucederam, mesmo com o Renascentismo e depois o Iluminismo, Dante continuou a pairar sobre nós, e isso é em parte aquilo que mais me intrigou ao longo de toda a leitura, e que procurei tentar perceber, tanto a partir do texto como de leituras adicionais."Os círculos do Inferno de Dante" (1481) de Sandro Botticelli "Inferno" (1826) por William BlakeMas antes de entrar nessa discussão, quero dar conta de forma muito sucinta do impacto que já referi acima, mas referindo alguns exemplos. Assim a originalmente intitulada “Comedia”, seria rebatizada de “Divina Comédia” por Boccaccio, especula-se que muito por influência da terceira parte, o Paraíso, de que falarei a seguir. No século seguinte, nada menos que Sandro Botticelli (1481) desenvolverá o primeiro grande conjunto de ilustrações para a “Divina Comédia”. Depois, Geoffrey Chaucer, que tal como Dante, se tornaria pai de uma das línguas de hoje, no caso o Inglês, com a sua obra “The Canterbury Tales” (1483), não só traduziria como reconheceria nas suas obras a influência de Dante. Depois em 1667 seria a vez de John Milton confrontar diretamente a obra a de Dante com o seu grande poema épico “Paraíso Perdido”. Balzac também não se coibiria de batizar a sua série de romances sociais como “A Comédia Humana” (1850), numa clara referência à Comédia. Depois William Blake faria mais um conjunto de ilustrações para a Divina Comédia (1826), mas a sua morte impossibilitaria terminar o trabalho iniciado, contudo esse mesmo seria retomado por Gustave Doré (1861) que viria a oferecer à obra uma ilustração por canto, e de tal forma relevante, que nos dias de hoje se torna quase indissociável da Comédia. Ainda no século XIX a música faria grandes homenagens, com "A Sinfonia de Dante" por Liszt (1856) e "Francesca da Rimini" de Tchaikovsky (1876). Já no século XX, Salvador Dali (1950) não poderia passar sem realizar uma tentativa de ilustrar a Comédia, e por fim não poderia deixar de citar, a fantástica escultura a “Porta do Inferno” por Auguste Rodin (1917).“Porta do Inferno” (1917) de Auguste RodinContudo o reconhecimento não se limita às artes. Fora delas, na própria ciência, Dante foi reconhecido, e pode-se dizer mesmo que pode ter servido de motor a algumas das principais ideias da Renascença italiana, existindo quem associe o pensamento de Galilei Galileu à Divina Comédia. A verdade é que lendo a obra, por várias vezes nos deparamos com ideias sobre a realidade baseadas em ciência e não mero senso comum, desde a Terra esférica, à força da gravidade, passando pela astronomia, e até o próprio método experimental. Isto demonstra várias coisas, primeiro que a idade média, ainda que aqui tardia, não foi as trevas que durante muitos anos se venderam e que tiveram de esperar pela Renascença para voltar à vida. Por outro lado, Dante cita abundantemente Aristoteles e vários outros pensadores gregos e romanos, ou seja a sua formação estava muito longe de se encerrar por um véu teológico, como por vezes a obra parece querer fazer crer.Dante AlighieriAliás, tenho de dizer que talvez aquilo que mais me impressionou na leitura de Dante, foi a avidez com que referenciava autores e criadores, das artes, ciência e teologia. Aliás, veja-se desde logo o facto de Dante iniciar a sua jornada pelo Inferno pela mão de ninguém menos do que o poeta do grande épico da Roma Antiga, Virgilio, com quem vai dialogando trazendo para dentro da sua obra factos da história de Roma. Mas são inúmeras as citações, e por isso a certa altura questionava-me sobre algo que já me fui questionando nesta minha senda pela leitura dos clássicos, e que tem que ver com a proximidade entre o discurso académico e o discurso das obras clássicas imortais. São raras as obras que perduraram, que não referenciaram quem veio antes de si. Se numa primeira impressão podemos ficar com aquela ideia do senso comum, de que o autor está apenas a dar espaço à vaidade de mostrar que conhece, na verdade é muito mais do que isso, sendo homenagem, é mais, porque é antes o reconhecimento do conhecimento e civilização até ali construída. É identificação com as ideias e mundo dos que nos precederam, para a partir deles ir mais longe. O conhecimento só se eleva assente nos ombros daqueles que nos precederam. É por isso que é importante estudá-los, lê-los, conhecê-los. Não se cria no vazio, ou cria, mas nunca teríamos chegado até ao ponto civilizacional em que nos encontramos, se cada um de nós, tivesse sempre reiniciado o processo do zero.Por isso não admira ler Cervantes, Shakespeare, ou Virgilio, ou ainda Marco Aurélio e Montaigne, ou mais recentemente Dostoiévski, Tolstoi, Vitor Hugo, Emile Zola, Proust, Mann, ou Pessoa, e ver como eles não têm pudor em homenagear quem serviu para que se elevassem acima do que existia. E por isso também não admira que Dante seja referenciado por T.S. Eliot, E.M. Forster, Jorge Luis Borges, Primo Levi, Samuel Beckett, Bret Easton Ellis, David Fincher, Stephen King ou Dan Brown. Dante tornou-se referência obrigatória para quem precisa de referir o lugar do inferno, e por isso o seu nome viria a assumir a forma de adjetivo, para qualificar tudo aquilo que ao inferno diz respeito."Purgatório" (1960's) de Salvador Dali"Se7en" (1995) de David FincherEsta referência ao inferno por Dante, ou melhor, a omnipresença de Dante nas referências ao inferno, fizeram com que a certa altura acreditasse que Dante poderia ter sido o grande responsável pela criação de tal figura, ou pelo menos no instigador das imagens horrendas que o inferno possui no imaginário ocidental, mas não é assim. Dante baseia-se no conhecimento da altura, existiam vários relatos teológicos que se apresentavam como descrições factuais daquilo que seria o inferno, o purgatório e o paraíso. Aliás, nas minhas pesquisas encontrei mesmo uma visualização desse mesmo inferno, que não dista muito daquilo que Dante nos viria a dar, criada para uma enciclopédia medieval, a “Hortus Deliciarum” (1195) (ver imagem abaixo), por uma mulher, a abadessa Herrad de Landsberg. Já não surpreende ver mulheres surgirem na frente de muitos homens, tem sido já neste século que temos vindo a descobrir a história de grandes mulheres deixadas na obscuridade — ex. Ada Lovelace, Hedy Lamarr ou Katherine Johnson. Neste caso Landsberg vivia com a sua ordem enclausurada num convento, usando esta enciclopédia para o ensino."Inferno" (1195) por Herrad de LandsbergVoltando ao texto, mas antes ainda primeiro ao processo de leitura, para poder dar conta da experiência da obra. Comecei pela tradução de Vasco Graça Moura, mas ao fim de poucas páginas parei, não pela dificuldade de leitura apenas, mas por ter percebido que não se pode ler Dante sem ler primeiro um conjunto de outras obras. Dante viaja ao inferno pela mão de Virgilio, desse modo é obrigatório ler antes a “Eneida”, a obra maior de Virgilio. Por outro lado, a Eneida é um relato baseado no pós-guerra de Tróia, de modo que se torna obrigatório ler antes também a "Ilíada" e a "Odisseia". Seria interessante ler ainda algumas tragédias gregas de Sófocles, Ésquilo e Eurípedes, já que elas acrescentam bastante à mitologia de Homero, mas não o fiz, e como já tinha lida a "Odisseia", li então a "Ilíada" e "Eneida", e voltei a Dante. Ao chegar de novo à Comédia, fui confrontado com o facto de ter lido a “Eneida” na tradução portuguesa mais comum, dos colegas da Faculdade de Letras de Lisboa, e que está em prosa. Resolvi então procurar traduções em prosa da Comédia, já que as em verso que tinha visto eram bastante inferiores à de Moura. Foi assim que encontrei a belíssima tradução do escritor brasileiro, Hernâni Donato, para a Cultrix, de 1979, que acabou por me abrir as portas a Dante de uma forma que não encontrei em mais nenhuma outra tradução.Em termos académicos, a tradução de Moura é irrepreensível, e para quem quiser estudar a obra em profundidade, não existe alternativa, até porque a obra vem no formato bilingue, com o texto original lado a lado. Mas para quem quiser entrar no mundo de Dante, experimentar a sua imaginação, Donato faz um belíssimo trabalho. Moura faz uma tradução excepcional, totalmente colada ao original, usando inclusive português arcaico, e acima de tudo, mantendo a “terça rima” (ABA, BCB, CDC, DED) de Dante. Ora o problema, para além do vocabulário arcaico, é que a rima usada por Dante acabou por condicionar, se assim quisermos dizer, o conteúdo em virtude da forma. Ou seja, a economia de texto exigida pelos versos, aliada ao facto de Dante estar a apontar o dedo a figuras conhecidas, conduziu Dante a construir um texto que vai mascarando ideias, nomeadamente pelo minimalismo, que deixa de fora da compreensão quem não detenha uma base de contexto sobre a obra e o autor. E é essa contextualização que Donato faz muito bem na conversão para prosa, não apenas com notas de rodapé, mas na reconstrução dos sentidos do texto. Por outro lado, a versão de Moura consegue um tom muito mais próximo de Dante, algo a que Donato claramente foge. Na leitura de Moura, sentimos a rispidez, o cru e vulgaridade que Dante quis denotar pelo uso da língua comum, o italiano. Já Donato, acaba por embelezar bastante o texto, mantendo as três partes sempre num mesmo tom, prazeiroso e muito acolhedor, mas igual. Ainda para ajudar à leitura, comprei também o livro das ilustrações de Gustave Doré, que fui usando apenas quando terminava cada livro, para poder confrontar o que tinha lido e sentido, com as visualizações proporcionadas por Doré que de certo modo acabam funcionando como sínteses de cada canto.Dito tudo isto, de que fala afinal a Divina Comédia? Julgo que isso não tem nada de novo, é sobejamente conhecido, mas aqui fica. A obra está dividia em três livros, com 33 cantos cada um, à exceção do primeiro que tem mais um que serve de introdução, perfazendo os 100 cantos. O primeiro livro retrata o Inferno, e é o mais conhecido, assim como o mais popular, tanto para quem lê, como para quem acusa a influência de Dante. O relato é muito direto, vamos pela mão de Dante, que pela sua vez vai pela mão de Virgilio, ao longo dos vários círculos que constituem o Inferno, e no qual vamos encontrando as figuras mais macabras, sendo que Dante não se coíbe de listar quem da sua realidade ali vai encontrando. Dante não morreu, a sua descida ao Inferno, deve-se ao facto de ir atrás da sua amada, Beatrice, que morreu. Por isso Dante é um ser-vivo que se passeia pelo mundo dos mortos gerando muita interrogação e má-disposição nalguns dos membros desse mundo que vai encontrando."Beata Beatrix" (1870) de Dante Gabriel RossettiNo segundo livro descemos/subimos (pela inversão esférica do mundo) ao Purgatório e é onde vamos encontrar um novo conjunto de personagens também reais, que aguardam pela sua conversão ou purga dos pecados. É neste livro que Dante ilustra os 7 Pecados Capitais, ou vícios — Gula, Avareza, Luxúria, Ira, Inveja, Preguiça e Soberba — que estão dispersos por cada círculo do Purgatório. Este livro é menos envolvente que o primeiro, porque menos claro no que pretende dizer, até porque os personagens estão em trânsito, e existe muita indefinição.No último livro, chegamos ao Paraíso, o fim da viagem, agora já não com Virgilio, mas pela mão de Beatrice que nos leva à presença de algumas das figuras mais relevantes de Roma e da história cristã —São Tomás de Aquino, São Francisco de Assis, Carlos Magno, Trajano, Constantino, alguns apóstolos, Adão — até ao estágio final do encontro com Deus. Por isso dizia acima, que o acrescento de Divina ao Comédia, por Bocaccio fazia todo o sentido. Neste livro sentimos o aspeto teológico muito presente, mas ao mesmo tempo uma espécie de liberação de Dante, como se os questionamentos lançados iluminassem o caminho, e tornassem mais claro o propósito não só da viagem, mas do todo.Da minha experiência retiro essencialmente o sentimento de proximidade com a História que o livro me proporcionou, e que não tinha sentido tanto com Homero, apesar de ter sentido com Marco Aurélio. Durante a leitura senti como se viajasse no tempo, como se as linhas que tinha na mão fizessem parte de um tempo remoto, e eu tivesse o enorme privilégio de aceder por meio delas a esse tempo. A leitura funcionou em certa medida, como quando visitamos um monumento histórico, com séculos de história e nos sentamos ali por um pedaço de tempo, a imaginar o que teriam pensado e vivido as pessoas que por ali passaram séculos ou milhares de anos antes de nós. Como se as pedras nos pudessem transmitir parte dessa História, vidas passadas, mas contudo plasmadas em pedras trabalhadas, e aqui nas palavras de Dante, escritas há 700 anos."O Empíreo" (1861) por Gustave Doré Como disse no início, Dante é um dos poucos imortais, e explicar porquê não é fácil, porque estão implicadas imensas variáveis, não é apenas o texto, é também a sua forma, a língua escolhida, o momento da sua escrita, a região em que foi escrito, e depois tudo o que foram dizendo aqueles que lhe sucederam. Contudo acredito que para além de tudo o que já disse acima, o facto de ter escrito sobre um tema que a todos toca de muito perto, e tê-lo feito com tanta naturalidade, ainda que contaminado de muitas ilusões impostas pelas lógicas religiosas, contribuiu para que todos os que vieram depois dele, se tivessem interessado em saber o que tinha para nos dizer. Ler hoje Dante já não se faz para encontrar respostas, mas não deixa de nos ajudar a compreender de onde viemos, nomeadamente para todos os que fazem parte da sociedade ocidental marcada pela matriz cristã.Publicado no VI em:

  • Fran
    2019-04-15 03:59

    El autor manda a todos sus enemigos al infierno, conoce a su ídolo y la chica que ama finalmente lo pesca. Lejos el mejor fanfic que he leído. 100% recomendado.

  • Poncho
    2019-04-13 03:23

    What can one say about The Divine Comedy that hasn't been said? An analysis? Many scholars have already done that — and quite outstandingly, I must say, to a degree that I would never achieve. A funny meta review of sorts? It's already been done. So I guess it's like Solomon said and there's no new thing under the sun about this masterpiece: it needs no explanations about its grandeur and it does itself justice.My only remaining words would be an endorsement upon this edition published by Oxford University Press, translated by C. H. Sisson. Regardless of the translation's unpopularity, it's absolutely well done, in blank verse, and the explanatory notes were completely helpful for me, since even though I knew many of the works to which Dante makes reference throughout the cantos (such as Ovid's Metamorphoses or Virgil's Aeneid or even The Bible), there were many other authors, political and pontifical personages, and works that I didn't. Furthermore, Dante, besides his undeniable mastery as a poet, was also somewhat of an astronomer, a theologian, a philosopher; so some of his verses can be quite obscure without proper guidance. For me, this edition provided me with everything I needed to know in a 200-paged section of explanatory notes. As I read a canto, I read the corresponding notes: a technique I took from one of Borges's stories. Then as I moved forward in the book I understood that Dante was a virtuoso in poetry, but as I read the notes and came to understand some lines that seemed as nothing more than metaphors that were part of the poem, I knew every single one of them is there for a reason, written by an author who was a genius indeed.

  • Teresa
    2019-04-12 11:15

    How in the World (or Inferno or Purgatorio or Paradiso) am I supposed to review this work? I could review the edition and translator, though I have nothing else to compare them against. Ciardi's notes at the end of each canto are always illuminating, sometimes funny and occasionally self-deprecating. I chuckled at his humor (sharing those particular notes with my husband) and was appreciative of Ciardi's honesty whenever he used a rhyme-forced addition, as well as the instance or two when he asked the reader to forgive his less-than-perfect poetry. He's both thorough and entertaining.Use any adjective you'd like and it's bound to fit at least one part of Dante's work: condemnatory, fearful and exuberant; horrific, trepidatious and jubilant; political, personal and universal: there's really no point in my going on, especially now that I've used three sets of three.I'd love to know what kind of person Dante became after finishing this work. He had to be changed in the course of its writing; it would be sad (and too human of him) to think otherwise.

  • ايمان
    2019-04-18 09:59

    الجزء الأول من الكوميديا الالهية:دانتي انطلق من مفهوم الجحيم في الميثولوجيا الاغريقية و التصور المسيحي بمعنى ان الجحيم يوجد في العالم السفلي تحت الأرض....تبدأ الرحلة بدخول دانتي غابة سوداء قادته الى مدخل الجحيم ليبدأ رحله تستمر عبر تسع دوائر و اربعة و ثلاثون نشيدا يقوده فيها ملهمه الأول فرجيل صاحب الانياذة..فيبدأ دانتي رحلة تشبه لحد كبير الأساطير و المعتقدات المسيحية هناك مزج غريب بين ماهو ديني ووثني في الشخصيات و انواع العذابات..تصنيف المعذبين تأثر فيه دانتي بكتاب ارسطو في الأخلاق فنجد اغلب المعذبون لأسباب أخلاقية فنجد الكذابين و المرتشين و المسرفين و المسيئين للجار في حين افرد عدة دوائر للهراطقة..المثير للجدل ايضا ذكره لثلاث شخصيات مسلمة في الدائرة الأولى الليمبو المخصص للفضلاء الوثنيين و هؤلاء لا يعذبون لكن لا يدخلون الفردوس ايضا "عذاب بلا ألم "...جزء مثير و ممتع ذكرني كثيرا بمعجزة الرسول الاسراء و المعراج و هناك للأشارة الكثير من الدراسات التي أكدت ان دانتي تأثر بشكل كبير بأخبار هذه المعجزة في كتابه الكوميديا الى جانب بطبيعة الحال رسالة الغفران للمعري..قراءة ممتعةاختار دانتي للجزء الثاني لمؤلفه المثير اسم المطَهر فكرة نجد لها اصولا في الديانة الوثنية و قدماء المصريين و على خلاف الجحيم الذي ينزل على المخطئين عقابا جازما و ابديا نجد في المطهر ارواحا لا كافرة و لا مؤمنةارواحا ضائعة لم تؤذ احدا سوى ذواتها فاستوجب ان تطهرها مما شابها من آثام فنجد المتكبرين و الشرهين و غيرهم..اعترف اني احسست بملل و صعوبة في اكمال هذا الجزء لتركيزه على شخصيات ايطالية و بعض الرموز التي لم افهمها و تستدعي البحث لكنها تبقى تجربة ممتعة تستحق القراءة ايضا ..الجزء الثالث و الأخير الفردوس عند دانتي يوجد في السماء استحقه القادة الشرفاء و المحبين و القديسين و الفلاسفة الى ان نصل الى مريم العذراء و رؤية الله اعترف اني في هذا القسم شعرت بالملل ربما لأني احسست بالغربة في الفردوس دون ان اجد ذكرا لرسولنا الكريم و لا الصحابة الكرام و لا المسلمين الذين اعتبرهم دانتي يمثلون شريعة الشر كما هو مذكور في هذا الجزء على لسان جده كاشياغيدا..اغرق دانتي هذا الجزء بملوك و قديسيين وجدت صعوبة في المام بكل هذا التاريخ المسيحي الايطالي..بالرغم من كل هذا التعقيد اجدها مغامرة تستحق القراءة..مع محبتي