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Estreitamente ligado aos acontecimentos do seu tempo, atuando e participando, Jean-Paul Sartre reflete em toda a sua obra a preocupação básica do existencialismo: ter de optar em todas as situações e, que a sociedade, a política, a família ou os hábitos adquiridos colocam o homem face a uma multiplicidade de caminhos possíveis. A liberdade dessa opção coloca o indivíduo faEstreitamente ligado aos acontecimentos do seu tempo, atuando e participando, Jean-Paul Sartre reflete em toda a sua obra a preocupação básica do existencialismo: ter de optar em todas as situações e, que a sociedade, a política, a família ou os hábitos adquiridos colocam o homem face a uma multiplicidade de caminhos possíveis. A liberdade dessa opção coloca o indivíduo face a uma responsabilidade angustiante: livre de escolher, a responsabilidade dessa escolha, as suas consequências, recaem inteiramente sobre ele. Na série "Os Caminhos da Liberdade", de que a Idade da Razão é o primeiro volume, Sartre, através das suas situações em que as suas personagens se debatem, da escolha de cada uma delas faz, traça um quadro vivo, autêntico , da estagnada sociedade francesa nas vésperas da guerra. A solidão, a liberdade e a responsabilidade humanas analisadas com rigor e sistematizadas com uma exigência lúcida por um dos maiores pensadores do nosso tempo....

Title : A Idade da Razão
Author :
Rating :
ISBN : 13424211
Format Type : Paperback
Number of Pages : 362 Pages
Status : Available For Download
Last checked : 21 Minutes ago!

A Idade da Razão Reviews

  • Manny
    2018-12-26 06:30

    This is an excellent novel about unpleasant people, with some unforgettable scenes. Here's one of the ones I liked most. Daniel, a strange character who has never managed to establish a normal connection with the world, has been hovering on the edge of suicide for some time. He's finally decided he's going to do it. But he can't just leave his three cats to starve to death, so he puts them in a wicker basket and takes them down to the river to drown them. The basket is too small, and he can hear them fighting and complaining inside. But of course it doesn't matter any more.When he gets there, he suddenly realises it's impossible. He trudges back home with his heavy basket and opens it. The cats emerge, looking very much the worse for wear. His favourite has a nasty scatch over her eye. In the middle of all the commotion, he's also managed to get himself scatched, and it hurts. He feels utterly miserable.It's one of the most effective passages I know on the subject of why it generally isn't a good idea to want to kill yourself.

  • melissa
    2019-01-10 04:25

    I had this job one summer at a Dillard's department store. I worked in the linens section. Nobody shops for sheets in the summer, I guess, because I spent a lot of time doing absolutely nothing. My boyfriend used to write me letters and send me to work with them so that I would have something to read. Well that got old so one day when I was poking around the props (you know - how they set up the entire fancy-pants mock bedrooms?) I found a copy of this book on a table. So I parked myself on a stool out of the view of the non-existent customers and started reading. At the end of each day I put the book back on the little mock-bedroom table. I got fired before I finished the book but eventually picked up another copy and completed it. A lot of people think Sartre is heavy but I found it to be a quite enjoyable summer read. Take it to the beach!

  • Tej
    2019-01-05 07:24

    ‘Age of Reason’ is all about existentialism. Fiction and philosophy inextricably and ‘entertainingly’ combined almost rendering it a page-turner. I had never previously come across the guile and craft of Sartre, the artist and only knew Sartre, the philosopher whose authoritative philosophical monologues were curt and declarative, sans the resplendence of an artistic canvas. The vivacity and vividness with which Sartre paints each one of his characters amidst their existential exigencies leaves behind their ever-lasting impressions on the fertile mental space. Each name springs up in mind in a color and the association with that color is complete, character and the color inextricable from each other. To me, the biggest achievement of this quite a long tale has to be the control that Sartre exercises over his writing. His characters are a god-forsaken lot, condemned, abandoned and carrying on their shoulders the ‘burden’ of their freedoms. This abandonment is of their own choosing or unavoidable because they are conscious, disgruntled and bored individuals, committed to denouncement of bourgeois and the lives they lead. The pain and reclusiveness (both self-inflicted and forced) are only but a small price to pay for the freedom they cherish. Or is it? The very disgust and offence they inspire endears them all the same. This book asks more questions than it answers, creates more doubts than it clarifies, precisely, leaves one in the lurch. Those uninitiated with Sartre might just get too engrossed with the plot, when the very essence of this work lies beneath all the love affairs, affairs without love, suicides or attempts, abortions and pregnancies, communism and Zionism, politics and philosophy and the like. ‘Existentialism everywhere’ and no where without ‘existentialism’ where only the seeker is invited. This can very well serve as a rider attached to my recommendation :).Reluctantly I call Mathieu the chief protagonist, not that he is not a chief protagonist, which he is but the attention that is given to each one of the six, seven or eight characters keeps them all at a vantage point of significance. The story is about Mathieu and his mistress Marcelle whom he had been seeing for seven years with a mutual agreement against marriage and child. Marcelle’s pregnancy causes the turmoil, the havoc, the storm in the life of ‘free’ Mathieu. His desire to get rid of this child, a veritable blot on his freedom and ‘principles’, brings him face to face with his own self, his beliefs and his life. Sartre’s philosophy is contained in the phrase; ‘existence precedes essence’ meaning that man is not born with an intrinsic value but creates a value with his own will and actions. He is forlorn because he is devoid of God and thus only himself responsible for his actions (as well as inactions, inaction also being an action). He is free to choose and this freedom is his condemnation. The story revolves around Mathieu in this philosophical background and brings to fore his existential struggles along with those of the characters linked directly or remotely to his life. There are far too many memorable moments that leave an indelible mark along with the questions and reflections to ponder a long time after the last page is turned over.To put it succinctly, ‘Age of Reason’ moves from,"Yes - you want to be free. Absolutely free. It's your vice"......"Yes, yes - it's your vice.""it's not a vice. It's how I'm made.""Why aren't other people made like that, if it isn't a vice?""They are, only they don't know it."Through….," 'I have led a toothless life,' he thought. 'A toothless life. I have never bitten into anything. I was waiting. I was reserving myself for later on - and I have just noticed that my teeth have gone. What's to be done? Break the shell? That's easily said. Besides - what would remain? A little viscous gum, oozing through the dust and leaving a glistening trail behind it.' " To,"He yawned: he had finished the day, and he had also finished with his youth. Various well-bred moralities had already discreetly offered him their services: disillusioned epicureanism, smiling tolerance, resignation, common sense, stoicism - all the aids whereby a man may savor, minute by minute, like a connoisseur, the failure of a life. "It's true, absolutely true: I have attained the age of reason." This was my very first foray into Sartre’s fiction which I found thoroughly engrossing and thought provoking and replete with existential essence of human life. I may not agree with all that Sartre says but I still find synchronization with his efforts at deciphering the question of ‘being human’. Surely have to explore more of him.

  • Ahmed
    2019-01-07 05:27

    سن الرشد ..... جان بول سارترالكتب لم توضع كي نؤمن بما تقوله، ولكن كي نتحرى فيها، لا يجب أن نتساءل أمام كتاب ماذا يقول، ولكن ماذا يريد أن يقول.هذه الرواية لم تُخلق ليُكتب عنها، بل وُجدت لتٌقرأ وتُقرأ فقط لنعيش في أجواءها.ملحمة من العلاقات الإنسانية شديدة التعقيد والتداخل تدور أحداثها في فترة فوضوية انعكستفوضويتها على شخوصها.هي رواية عن الحب والرغبة والجبن، رواية عن الإنسان في كافة مراحل حياته.روايةتشعر أمامها انها تتحدث عنك انت، لا غيرك.رواية صعب تكتب عنها، أو تتحدث حتى عنها لانها ببساطة هي من تتحدث.

  • Stephanie A. Higa
    2019-01-07 09:01

    This is basically a soap opera with brains and direction, which is my favorite kind of book ever. The character development is EXTRAORDINARY. I recommend this book on that facet alone. I didn't read this as an exemplification of Sartre's philosophy, but rather as a study of the philosophy of the characters in the story. None of these people are truly likable, but they are all the more human because of that. Even the most agreeable people think disagreeable thoughts. This is something most of us realize, at least on some level, but I don't think I've ever seen it rendered so well in fiction. I am pretty much still sitting here in awe at the complexity of Sartre's understanding of human motivation. I could also relate to Mathieu, sort of how I identified somewhat with Hamlet. Yes, he is a bit of a Hamlet-- actually, he's Hamlet in the extreme. It's unfortunate for him, but fortunate for the sake of the story.It is a little long though, especially near the end. The plot is also rather average, but it serves its purpose. I'm pretty sure most people wouldn't have been able to make such a mundane plot so engaging. I really give this a 4.5, but I rounded up....

  • Edward
    2019-01-07 03:24

    Introduction--The Age of Reason

  • Aubrey
    2019-01-01 08:16

    Soap opera with brains. Yes, I can agree with this. Caring about other people while watching their little lives and dramas is so much more fulfilling when they prove themselves to have complex despair behind their everyday actions. It never ends, really. The constant proving to oneself that this life is worthwhile, that the hopes of the past and the dreams of the future won't go to waste. Mathieu keeps to his belief of freedom, to be capable of anything, no matter what constraints have been laid across his living by emotional bonds and societal dictations and past history. In the end he achieves this freedom, and finds that he no longer believes in it. He has reached the age of reason, when he sees that the ideas that once characterized him can no longer be applied to him, unless he wishes to be a hypocrite. In achieving his freedom, he sacrificed for nothing, a nothing that provides a clean a break from everything that had been forcing him into a situation that was no longer; and for what? He may have found a small satisfaction in not being free, now that he had realized that he was waiting for a moment of a lifetime that would never come. Everyone around him either spins out delusions of the future or chases desires that had died long ago, joining him in his everlasting goal of not sinking into regret and despair. A satisfyingly realistic portrayal of the tightrope walk that daily life really is.

  • Deema
    2019-01-19 01:00

    “I have led a toothless life … a toothless life. I have never bitten into anything. I was waiting. I was reserving myself for later on – and I have just noticed that my teeth have gone.”Reading The Age of Reason felt like navigating the dark recesses of my subconscious and coming face-to-face with my innermost anxieties. If that sounds awful, that’s because it kind of was. I don’t think I’ve ever finished a book on such a low note. I also don’t think I’ve ever finished a book feeling so understood. I could talk about the plot, but the plot doesn’t matter, it’s the subtext that does – this nagging regret of a life not lived; a life that has amounted to nothing because of a protagonist who bases every life decision on excessive forethought, a habit that steers him away from making any decision on a whim.This whole book is about our freedom to make the choices we want to make but never do; about our deep need for change but secret desire to stay the same. This constant battle between how things are and how we want them to be causes us to lead a life of limbo, always in between things but never picking a side, until we find ourselves at the “age of reason” – that pivotal moment where making a radical decision could alter our lives forever. But do we take that risk?It takes an incredible talent to be able to write a thought-provoking novel with so many multi-dimensional characters in so few pages. It also helps that the plot itself is interesting, and Sartre doesn’t use words lightly. Each word is chosen deliberately, and each sentence packs a punch. This is a book that was written modestly but with absolute confidence in the message it was putting across, and it’s a book I definitely won’t be forgetting any time soon.

  • Keinwyn Shuttleworth
    2019-01-09 04:10

    I found this book on a much neglected dusty shelf in a back-alley-esque section of my local library and decided to take it home with me. I had never read anything written by Jean-Paul Sartre before (purely due to Sartre's intimidating reputation) but something about The Age Of Reason demanded to be read. Needless to say, I soon found myself swimming in the erratic seas of Mathieu Delarue's chaotic existence, completely in awe of Sartre's understanding of human impetus. We meet Mathieu, a philosophy teacher living in a bohemian Paris that is between wars and in the midst of a heat wave. The world about him is in a tumultuous state and his own life begins to follow suite when he discovers that his reclusive lover Marcelle is pregnant. Seeking money for an abortion whilst fighting his own indecision and insecurities, the novel plunges us into three days of Mathieu's life, which is not only a life that brings him deep dissatisfaction, but is also a life that he is rapidly losing control of. Like Ian Curtis bellowing out the prolific Joy Division song Heart And Soul, (lyric: 'Existence well what does it matter/I exist on the best terms I can/the past is now part of my future/the present is well out of hand') Mathieu seems to be a man without a past or a future, a man living between parenthesis who is so fearful of "existing too much" that he ceases to exist at all. Through the narrative of this man, a single voice is heard, and that is the voice of Sartre himself. This is Sartre challenging the reader to explain Mathieu's anomalous motives, whilst highlighting the pointlessness of existence itself. This is Sartre forcing you to analyze your own life, which is essentially why this novel is an absolute must read.

  • Mark
    2018-12-31 05:30

    The first part of his Freedom series should be required reading for any existentialist approaching his mid-30s without any aspirations of marrying or falling in line. Mathieu, a French philosophy professor, spends most of the novel trying to borrow money so he can pay for his mistresses' abortion. His friends are a sorted bunch who attempt to take away his only goal: ultimate freedom.Some literary experts say the protagonist must transform by the end. But what makes this book so great is that Mathieu eventually returns to his former self. He becomes nothing and that theme of freedom in nothing rings through the rest of Satre's work. Clocking in at more than 400 pages, it can be a rough read. But the final scene of a freed Mathieu undoing his tie while he contemplates and savors his failure to attach himself to anything is brilliant.

  • StevenGodin
    2018-12-29 03:16

    Over the course of two days in Paris during a hot summer in 1938, philosophy teacher Mathieu Delarue has a crisis on his hands, he needs to raise funds for an abortion so his life can retain the total freedom that he so dearly clings to, all the while there is a circulating tension with the threat of war looming. 'The Age of Reason' captures this period in time very well, but the overall narrative left me cold.Expertly written?, yes, but drags along in places, Matthieu himself was a deeply studied character, and felt like a man stuck between a rock and a hard place in his attempts to straighten his life out.An influential work rather than an enjoyable one, it's probably a masterpiece.I have nothing against Satre, he was great friends with Simone de Beauvoir (one of my favourite writers), but when it comes to the writings of existentialism I much prefer Camus.

  • Sean Wilson
    2018-12-23 07:13

    Jean-Paul Sartre's The Age of Reason combines the author's existentialist investigations along with an analysis of human relations, continuing the philosophical intensity of Dostoevsky's complex melodramas. However, instead of an emphasis on religious morality and redemption, Sartre opts for a colder, more atheistic tone all under the threatening heat of the impending war. Sartre's tightly structured, dialogue-heavy novel works well in order to showcase his rather blunt but well observed viewpoints on freedom and human motives, even if at times it reads like a play. The Age of Reason features some brilliant set pieces, characterization and scenes that resonate long after putting the book down.

  • Bettie☯
    2019-01-04 08:25

    Apparently the BBC aired this series of books back in the 70s but now there is a conspiracy of silence as to just why it is not available. sourceAll that I have found is a documentary here. Easy to see the free-press roots of Charlie Hebdo in this and aren't we all vehemently against terrorism in all its forms? Sartre in his later years endorsed attacks as 'the atomic bomb of the poor.'Seems like a flip-flop to me. He was a man for and of a tiny window in on-going history.

  • Natali
    2018-12-20 02:08

    I wouldn't call this novel beautiful because the characters are so tedious, but the story is strangely captivating. It reminded me why we should all tame our runaway thoughts. If, as this book and existentialist theory would have us believe, the most profound philosophical condition revolves around individual thought, then our philosophical condition can be so silly. Superfluous even. Jean-Paul Sarte writes about really capable people who are fundamentally insecure, petulant, and selfish. They react, not to reality, but what they perceive as reality and then feel sorry for themselves due to the outcome. They are far too relatable, to be honest, and I am grateful for the reminder about the sniveling, self-loathing, and self-pitying nature that can come a little too easy to all of us.

  • آلاءبن سلمان
    2019-01-01 03:16

    مرعبة ، عظيمة ، تقدّس سارتر.

  • Greg Deane
    2019-01-09 05:04

    Jean-Paul Sartre’s three volume work, “Les Chemins de la liberté” (The Roads to Freedom), may be one of the earliest literary endeavours featuring an existentialist hero, through whom Sartre explores the problems that modern man encounters as individuals came to terms with the onus implicit in freedom and decision. The first book, “L'âge de raison” (The Age of Reason), introduces Mathieu Delarue, based on Sartre himself. He is a recluse with few friends and little money, confronted with the choice to abandon or support and a mistress who is unexpectedly pregnant. Delarue's conscience compels him to attempt to find the money for an abortion, but not enter into a more conventional bond of marriage that would deprive him of his liberty. Other characters mimic him in their struggle against bourgeois morality, including Boris, Mathieu's student, who exploits his girlfriend, Lola, Boris' sister, Ivich, finds an eccentrically ironic way of avoiding adult decisions, failing her exams to delay the prospect of a career. Mathieu's friend Daniel denies his homosexuality. All these characters are existentialist in their celebration of the moment they are in, and their efforts to avoid a predetermined course. The second novel, “Le sursis” (The Reprieve) begins as the French and British leaders prepare to concede the Sudetenland to Hitler at the Munich Pact, illustrating the theme of a lack of commitment that extends from individuals to nations and governments, and the collective fear of decision. But on the contrary, Mathieu himself is driven to make a commitment in his Communist friend, Brunet. This novel is much more convoluted that the first in the trilogy. Sartre thus is able to demonstrate the interdependence of personal life and the political situation which is the consequence of individuals who refuse to connect with the circumstances that dominate their lives. When Daniel, the homosexual marries Mathieu's pregnant girlfriend, and Boris abandons Lola by joining the army, they gain a slight reprieve but immerse themselves in the consequences of a decision that was intended to be a release from commitment.The third volume, “La mort dans l'âme” (Troubled Sleep or Iron in the Soul) reintroduces some of the early minor characters, caught up in France's retreat from the Germans in June 1940, in the decision to abandon the battle and to surrender national freedom. Unlike the French nation, Mathieu is morally valiant, inconsequentially defending a village, shooting at the Germans from the church bell-tower, that symbolically tlls for the denigration of French pride. The other characters likewise undergo abject humility for their fear and evasion of commitment. Only Brunet, the Communist, in prisoner of war camp, who has made an ideological commitment, is mentally equipped for the rigours of camp life. Sartre is at pains to urge his reader towards a toughness of spirit, towards having iron in the soul, because without a willing determination, freedom will not endure.

  • Surbhi Verma
    2019-01-14 02:09

    The Age of Reason constantly debates what the idea of freedom is for a man. Whether growing old means one should make every decision with reason or simply reconciliation. Set in the backdrop of Second World War, the characters seem completely oblivious, choosing to live their insular lives with their selfish ambitions - chasing their own version of freedom. Seen from an individual's perspective, freedom seems justified but not entirely when contrasted to humanity. Sartre's thinking makes for a timeless read. His ideas still feel so relevant even in this age.

  • Ninni
    2018-12-21 05:12

    A middle-classed white man finds life difficult, because annoying unattractive women either don't fall in love with him, or fall in love too easily, or just go and get pregnant as soon as you fuck them. Life is so damn unfair because one can't just do whatever one likes without consequences. Oh, and life beyond 30 is pointless.

  • Talie
    2019-01-09 01:00

    نظریات اگزیستانسیالیستی سارتر در قالب رمان.شخصیت دانیل شباهت داشت به استاروگین داستایوسکی.

  • Sérgio
    2019-01-02 09:15

    Comprei esta velha edição de bolso francesa numa feira de antiguidades por 1€ e estava longe de esperar algo tão marcante.Numa Paris em que a tensão pré-2ª Guerra Mundial é algo palpável seguimos a vida de algumas personagens, sendo a principal Mathieu, um professor de 34 anos que tenta levar à prática um ideal de vida de liberdade sem compromissos (tanto emocionais como a ideologias particulares). Quando a sua amante engravida, ele vê-se perante um dilema sem respostas fáceis.Para mim o enredo deste livro e o estilo de prosa são tremendos. Dá-me vontade de chamá-lo "realismo subjectivo" em que a "verdade" de cada personagem varia com o contexto do momento. Assim, é um livro que nos dá realmente a sentir a dificuldade de fazer opções de vida totalmente determinantes quando somos obrigados a isso. Em poucos dias Mathieu (e outras personagens) vêem-se perante essas decisões, , e isso dá num livro emocionante e de enredo intrincado. Também devo referir os momentos de prosa «stream of consciousness» que são excelentes também.Os outros livros da trilogia Os Caminhos da Liberdade também são muito bons, mas este é uma obra-prima. :)

  • Alyssa Mitchell
    2019-01-09 04:06

    One of my favorites. However, I only appreciated it once I reached a certain level of maturity. It dives into the deeper consciousness of each character underneath the basic thoughts. It makes you realize how insecure and all over the place all of humanity really is. The message I get from this book is "Miserable? You are not alone."

  • Vonia
    2018-12-19 07:01

     The Age of Reason (L'âge de raison) is a 1945 novel by Jean-Paul Sartre. It is the first part of the trilogy "The Roads to Freedom". The novel, set in the bohemian Paris of the late 1930s, focuses on three days in the life of a philosophy teacher named Mathieu who is seeking money to pay for an abortion for his mistress, Marcelle. Sartre analyses the motives of various characters and their actions and takes into account the perceptions of others to give the reader a comprehensive picture of the main character. The novel is concerned with Sartre's conception of freedom as the ultimate aim of human existence; the existentialist notion of ultimate freedom through presenting a detailed account of the characters' psychologies as they are forced to make significant decisions in their lives. As the novel progresses, character narratives espouse Sartre's view of what it means to be free and how one operates within the framework of society with this philosophy.  This is one of many rather brief synopses that I found on this novel. When first encountering these, I wondered why they were so nondescriptive. I now know why. It really is not about much more than Mathieu parading around town, meeting his friends, looking for somebody to loan him the four thousand francs he needs for his mistress Marcelle's abortion. However, this is one of those books that you need to actually read in order to appreciate. Because most of the book is actually about the inner workings in the minds of all the different characters, their thought processes, and psychological complexes. Other interesting characters include: Jaques Delarue, a lawyer & his brother, who most notably offers him 10,000 francs to marry the girl. Daniel, a suicidal and homosexual friend to Mathieu's who Marcelle has secretly been seeing ("My secrets from [Mathieu] are all I have"). His response to his lack of identity and still esteem is masochism, trying to drown his cats which he loves, male prostitutes which he secretly hopes will hurt him, eventually agreeing to marry Marcelle whom he hates in her pregnancy (some wonderfully worded descriptions of his deep feelings of despise by Sartre). In one of my favorite scenes (which is actually the final scene), Daniel confesses that he is a homosexual to Mathieu to "see the effect it would produce on a fellow like you" and returns the five thousand francs from Marcelle, pronouncing that he will marry Marcelle so that she may keep the child. Understandably confused, Mathieu finally deduces that Daniel is doing this to serve as a martyr. He envies his position, realizing that he has given up Marcelle for nothing, that he is nothing that he can respect. "Mathieu watched Daniel disappear and thought, "I remain alone." Alone but no freer than before. He had said to himself last evening, "If only Marcelle did not exist," but was deceived... "No one has interfered with my freedom, my life has drained it dry." The scent of Ivichn still hovered in the air. He inhaled the scent and reviewed that day in tumult. "Much ado about nothing," he thought. For nothing; this life had been given him for nothing; he was nothing and yet he would not change; he was as he was made. Various tried and proved rules of conduct had already offered their services disillusioned epicureanism, smiling tolerance, resignation, flat seriousness, stoicism; all the aids whereby a man may savor, minute by minute, like a connoisseur, the failure of a life. "It is true, it is really true; I have attained the age of reason."  Boris, Mathieu's disciple (although he hates being referred to as such) in Philosophy. Preoccupation with his age, feels old, running out of time; concerned that he has no future. Lola, his lover, whom Mathieu "forces to lend" him the 5,000 francs. Ivich, who Mathieu really loves, is a young girl from a wealthy family convinced she has failed the final examinations. She seems to have a preoccupation with denying herself touch, food, water, and other such desires. She claims to have being touched, yet acts recklessly with her body. Her definition of freedom seems to include denying any touch from Mathieu, denying any discussion regarding any affinity for each other, as if she is afraid this will lead to being "owned". Gomez, off fighting in Spain which makes Mathieu question his decision not to do the same; he feels guilty. Brunet, once his best friend, but since devoting himself to the Communist Party, has grown apart from him. Mathieu seems to admire and aspire to be like him, yet admits to not feeling good enough to do as such. He tries to convince Mathieu to sign the paperwork, but Mathieu is more concerned about his notion of personal freedom. This novel is essentially an exhibition of Sartre's philosophies. Here is a great summary I found from Sonoma State University:  Sartre's Philosophies 1. Existence precedes essence. "Freedom is existence, and in it existence precedes essence." This means that what we do, how we act in our life, determines our apparent "qualities." It is not that someone tells the truth because she is honest, but rather she defines herself as honest by telling the truth again and again. I am a professor in a way different than the way I am six feet tall, or the way a table is a table. The table simply is; I exist by defining myself in the world at each moment. 2. Subject rather than object. Humans are not objects to be used by God or a government or corporation or society. Nor we to be "adjusted" or molded into roles --to be only a waiter or a conductor or a mother or worker. We must look deeper than our roles and find ourselves. 3. Freedom. The central and unique potentiality which constitutes us as human. Sartre rejects determinism, saying that it is our choice how we respond to determining tendencies. 4. Choice. I am my choices. I cannot not choose. If I do not choose, that is still a choice. If faced with inevitable circumstances, we still choosehow we are in those circumstances. 5. Responsibility. Each of us is responsible for everything we do. If we seek advice from others, we choose our advisor and have some idea of the course he or she will recommend. "I am responsible for my very desire of fleeing responsibilities."6. Past determinants seldom tell us the facts. We transform past determining tendencies through our choices. Explanations in terms of family, socioeconomic status, etc., do not tell us why a person makes the crucial choices we are most interested in. 7. Our acts define who we are. "In life, a man commits himself, draws his own portrait, and there is nothing but that portrait." Our illusions and imaginings about ourselves, about what we could have been, are nothing but self-deception. 8. We continue to make ourselves. A "brave" person is simply someone who usually acts bravely. Each act contributes to defining us as we are, and at any moment we can begin to act differently and draw a different portrait​ of ourselves. There is always a possibility to change, to start making a different kind of choice.9. The power to create ourselves. We have the power of transforming ourself indefinitely. 10. Our reality. Human reality "identifies and defines itself by the ends which it pursues", rather than by alleged "causes" in the past. 11. Subjectivism. The freedom of the individual subject, and that we cannot pass beyond subjectivity. 12. The human condition. Despite different roles and historical situations, we all have to be in the world, to labor and die there. These circumstances "are everywhere recognisable; and subjective because they are lived and are nothing if we do not live them. 13. Condemned to be free. We are condemned because we did not create ourselves. We must choose and act from within whatever situation we find ourselves. 14. Abandonment. "I am abandoned in the world", in the sense that I find myself suddenly alone and without help.15. Anguish. "It is in anguish that we become conscious of our freedom. ...My being provokes anguish to the extent that I distrust myself and my own reactions in that situation." 1) We must make some choices knowing that the consequences will have profound effects on others (like a commander sending his troops into battle.) 2) In choosing for ourselves we choose for all humankind.16. Despair. We limit ourselves to a reliance on that which is within our power, our capability to influence. There are other things very important to us over which we have no control. 17. Bad faith. This means to be guilty of regarding oneself not as a free person but as an object. In bad faith I am hiding the truth from myself. "I must know the truth very exactly in order to conceal it more carefully. (There seems to be some overlap in Sartre's conception of bad faith and his conception of self-deception.) A person can live in bad faith, implying a constant and particular style of life. 18. "The Unconcious" is not really unconscious. At some level I am aware of, and I choose, what I will allow fully into my consciousness and what I will not. Thus I cannot use "the unconscious" as an excuse for my behavior. Even though I may not admit it to myself, I am aware and I am choosing.  Even in self-deception, I know I am the one deceiving myself, and Freud's so-called censor must be conscious to know what to repress. Those who use "the unconscious" as exoneration of actions believe that our instincts, drives, and complexes make up a reality that simply is; that is neither true nor false in itself but simply real.19. Passion is not an excuse. "I was overwhelmed by strong feelings; I couldn't help myself" is a falsehood. Despite my feelings, I choose how to express them in action. 20. Ontology. The study of being, of what constitutes a person as a person, is the necessary basis for psychoanalysis.The Good: Fascinating look into mindsets, loved reading about Sartre's philosophies. On a broad scale, I do agree with existentialism. The Bad: Too Much Philosophy. Nothing that much occurs, with, in Mathieu's words, "much ado about nothing". The Ugly: Interestingly, the worst thing about this novel was not the excess of philosophy, which I could handle by taking some time reading something else in between, but Sartre's punctuation and formatting choices. I am specifically referring to how he put characters thoughts in quotations. This made it highly confusing to decipher between dialogue unless one read it all very slowly, with distinct pausing in between to register the transition. A characters "thoughts" will be imbedded in between what they "say" out loud, and with it all formatted the same, it is very easy to read them as the same. Surprisingly distracting and frustrating.

  • Sara Abdulaziz
    2019-01-08 05:06

    “إنهما يتشبثان بشبابهما كما يتشبّث محتضرٌ بالحياة”. | سارترالتشبُّث بالشباب كان وظيفة كل شخصيات الجزء الأول من ثلاثية سارتر “سن الرشد”، إذ تمسّكت به مارسيل الفتاة العليلة حبيسة المنزل لأن الموت يترصدها خارجه عبر التمسك بحملها الذي لم يكن مخططًا له، ولا مرغوبًا من قِبل شريكها، بينما تمسكت به إيفيش عبر العبث والإهتمام المبالغ فيه بنفسها، أما لولا فقد كانت تحافظ على شبابها عبر حب شابٍ أصغر منها، لتثبت لنفسها في كل يومٍ لا يهجرها فيه بأنها ما تزال في شبابها. في حين تمسّك دانيال بشبابه عبر التلاعب بحياوات من حوله، كان يخلق الأحداث لئلا يشعر بقلتها في حياته. ومن ثم يجيء ماتيو، حبيس سن الرشد الذي ما كان ليمانعه لولا خشيته من فقد كنزه الأعظم: الحرية. وهذا ما جعله يتهرّب من أي التزامٍ يفرض عليه من قِبل علاقاته جميعًا. أكثر ما أثارته فيّ الرواية من تساؤل هو ما معنى أن يكون المرء حرًا؟ أن يتخلّص من كل القيود كيفما كانت؟ أم أن يختار قيوده طواعية لا أن يتم اختيارها له؟

  • Ian
    2019-01-10 08:01

    I'd never read Sartre before and was expecting a difficult read. Whilst I probably didn't pick up on all the philosophical themes I did thoroughly enjoy this tale of fairly unlikeable people and their relationships with each other. There's little fun to be had with this novel but it does convey a remarkable depth of characterisation, nobody comes out of it very well and indeed none of the cast seem particularly enamored with each other. It all takes place over a very brief period of time just before the second world war. There's a terrible sense of foreboding, the book drips bleakness. The main character, Mathieu, has gotten his girlfriend, Marcelle, pregnant and wants her to abort, he craves freedom and desperately doesn't want to fit into society. He makes presumptions of her and thinks he is in love with someone else. Who in turn isn't in love with him and is more concerned with her exams. Mathieu's best friend is obsessed with suicide but doesn't have the conviction to see it through, he is appalled at the way Mathieu is treating Marcelle and connives against him. As the book progresses Marcelle is prepared to go to any lengths to raise the money for an abortion not realising that his quest is taking him further down a path of self destruction... although ultimately the freedom he desires. It's that freedom which resonates throughout the book, what does it mean to be free, how can it be attained whilst simultaneously trying to exist in a life which has no meaning. It's a very thought provoking book, I can't pretend to have grasped all the existentialist stuff but followed the general gist of it... and the characters and their duplicitous machinations were fascinating enough to keep me turning pages. I shall be reading more Sartre.

  • Cody
    2018-12-21 03:24

    I read Nausea by Sartre while in college and really go into Existentialism and novels based on Existential themes. After Nausea (which is great!) I had only read a few essays and some short stories by Sartre. Now, a few years later, I wanted to get back into Sartre and I thought I would start by reading his Freedom trilogy. I began with The Age of reason, a story about a man dealing with the inevitability of becoming middle-aged and possibly becoming a father. The catch is...he is neither ready to grow up nor become a father.The theme of Freedom is completely inherent throughout the novel as the Mathieu realizes that growing older and being a father forces you to have responsibility and basically lays the rest of your life out for you. Mathieu is not ready for commitment of any kind and you read as his life spirals somewhat out of control as he deals with all of these altering issues.Another theme of freedom runs through the veins of the novel, but instead of it being someone’s immediate life, it is subtlety presented as political freedom. Not only is the story happening on the eve of WWII, but Mathieu is also being tugged back and forth between several political parties.This novel is rich, deep and full of little motifs that add up to the large personal struggle of one man and the rest of his life. Maybe not the best book for summer (I read it in the winter) but one that will make you fully think about the long term effect each choice you make will impact the rest of your life.

  • d.
    2018-12-30 05:20

    "ponavljao je u sebi zevajući: tačno je, ipak je tačno: nalazim se u zrelom dobu."matje, boris, danijel, marsela, ivish, lola su lichnosti na chijim ispreplitanim egzistencijama se zasniva ovaj blago filozofichni roman. poredjala sam ih po lichnom nahodjenju-dopadanju; mushki karakteri se bore za prevlast prvog mesta poshto mi se emocije bude i nadilaze jedna drugu dok razmishljam o svakom ponaosob, chudno je to..ne bih mogla napraviti definitivan izbor..matje je prvi samo zato shto je ovo njegovo zrelo doba i zasluzhio je to nekako bez konkurencije, nametnuto mu(mi)je. namerno nisam rekla ispreplitanim sudbinama (iako mi je bilo na vrh prsta). ko je chitao shvatice i zashto. ko nije neka prochita! ne vredi se raspisati sada o tematici (koja je nishta drugo do sam zhivot) ili zlu ne trebalo parafrazirati delove tako da ovom recenzijom nishta necu izneti osim utiska:zaklopivshi ovaj roman u meni se javila zhelja da ga chitam ponovo. ispochetka. ps. kada kazhem blago filozofichan ne mislim da potcenim sartrovu filozofichnost.ovo je roman o prihvatanju (i odbrani) svoje (ne)slobode. ovde je rech o odlukama. i o pomucenosti. ovi likovi ne filozofiraju o zhivotu. zatecheni(zatocheni) su u zhivotu koji im se deshava. ovde niko nije hrabar da se suochi sa svojim strahovima i zheljama i ostane trezan. i sam. a opet svi se suochavaju i svi su opijeni i usamljeni. iako nisam htela da se raspishem ipak jesam.

  • Alex
    2018-12-28 01:19

    There's a bit where Sartre describes Mathieu's sister-in-law: she's pretty, but "Mathieu had on countless occasions tried to unify these fluid features, but they escaped him; as a face, Odette's always seemed to be dissolving, and thus retained its elusive bourgeois mystery." (p. 127) And that's a little how I feel about this book, halfway through; it's certainly very good, and pretty to look at, but it's weirdly slippery. I can't quite get a handle on it.That may be my fault. Tough to say what you bring to a book, and what the book brings to you.And there's a sense of foreboding hanging over the thing that makes me feel like this won't always be the story; like something might happen soon to throw everyone into sharper relief. Maybe the whole thing is like the Gauguin self-portrait that Mathieu takes Ivich to see: so far we're just drawing the shadowy figures behind him, and soon enough we'll show the figure in front.Sorry, I got a little flowery there. ---------------------------------------------------And it ended like and unlike how I expected. I don't want to say too much, 'cause, y'know, spoilers and all that. It was beautiful, and I feel like getting screamingly plastered now.

  • Perry Whitford
    2019-01-14 07:24

    The first book of Satre's Roads of Freedom trilogy, set in the Paris of 1938, with war and occupation still an unlikely prospect. The main character, school teacher Mathieu, flirts with bohemianism and communism whilst rather ignobly trying to force his mistress to have an abortion, asking friends and family to help him out so that he can retain his freedom.Not very nice behaviour, but what the hell, existence precedes essence right? therefore all behaviour is essentially meaningless!It's a long time since I read this book, over twenty years in fact, but I still remember being strongly impressed by it as a teenager. I had not till that point read anything with such depth of consciousness across multiple characters, the warts and all frankness of their thoughts and motives for action. I was not used to the idea of a protagonist who could be so flawed and dislikable then, it was something of a shock to me, but a useful, revealing one. I read the third book of the trilogy too, but I can't recall reading the middle book, The Reprieve, although I may have. I will try and read that one soon, which will enable me to better revisit my old impressions of this novel.

  • Manasvi mudgal
    2019-01-04 05:23

    The book would have been much better had Hemingway written it. The setting, the characters are all there, and in the end it's just too much naval gazing. I'd summarize the difference as follows:In a similar setting Hemingway's characters while knowing life is shit, would drink and stay miserable while having mighty grand fun, and so would the reader. There would be fishing, whining, drinking, smoking, more fishing, more whining and so on. They'd be like "fuck it man, let's drink and chill and whine."However Sartre's go on and on, wondering about things, like "omg I am drinking now, what does drinking mean anyway, isn't man always drunk on something."Enjoyable in parts, irritating in some, brilliant in spots, irksome at times, this book should be read, but with caution. Yeah I know Sartre is a master, and I liked Nausea, but I think I've outgrown it. The philosophy and the whining. Better show it all, and smile in its face that's more fun.

  • Vanessa
    2019-01-16 01:25

    I read this when I was 19 and am now re-reading it at 51. Oh boy - my perspective has changed! Review to follow when I am done.